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Meter per Second

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    Gridded near-surface (2 and 10 m) daily average wind datasets for Australia from 1975 to 2018 have been constructed by interpolating observational data collected by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM). The new datasets span Australia at 0.05 × 0.05° resolution with a daily time step. The datasets were constructed by blending observational data collected at various heights using local surface roughness information.

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    The data set contains information on air temperature and relative humidity at heights 1m and 3m from three sensors at each height and a global solar radiation at 3m, mean wind speed and gust speed at 3m measured from the Bowen ratio energy balance Flux tower site, Great Western Woodlands Site.

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    The data set contains distance measures of primary (wind-borne) and secondary (on ground) seed dispersal during spring, summer and autumn, using empirical observations and detailed measurement of wind characteristics. Seeds were collected from populations of <i>Callitris verrucosa</i> within the reserve and was placed parallel to, and 100 m from the burn edge within the burnt site. For the empirical observation of seed dispersal we chose six release locations, three locations in each of the two sites, about 6 km apart that had both recently undergone a planned burn, one in spring 2009 and the other in autumn 2011. Within those two sites the three release locations were positioned 800 m apart from each other along a transect that was placed parallel to, and 100 m from the burn edge within the burnt site. To assess primary (wind-borne) seed dispersal, 20 randomly chosen seeds were released from each of three different heights (1 m, 2 m and 3 m) at each of the six sites, giving a total of 360 seeds released per season. Seeds were only released within a horizontal wind speed range of 8 - 25 km/h. At lower wind speeds seeds would not take-off and at higher wind speeds seeds could not be relocated. This data set could be reused in a similar study carried out for the same species in a different location. <br> To understand the effect of standing vegetation on the secondary (on-ground) seed dispersal, we established groups of 10 seeds on the ground within 10 m of each of the six previous release locations. Seed were left for 4 days before relocated and distances to the starting point were measured. This was repeated during all 3 seasons. Out of the 180 seeds released,161 (89%) seeds could be relocated. <br> Wind measurements were taken on a sand dune crest in the site that was burned during autumn 2011 using an ultrasonic anemometer (Model WindMaster (Part 1590-PK-020), Gill Instruments Ltd, Lymington, UK). Measurements continued for two weeks in spring, summer and autumn. The anemometer measured horizontal wind speed, horizontal wind direction, and vertical wind speed every 0.1 s, producing a dynamic, three dimensional wind speed vector. Measurements were taken at 2 m height. The data can be used for studies dealing with wind movements in mallee during Spring, Summer and Autumn as well as comparative seed dispersal studies using the same or other wind dispersed plant species.

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    This dataset consists of measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer from bare earth using eddy covariance techniques.<br /><br /> This is a topographically flat area, primarily comprised of the following soil types: sandy loams, scattered clays, red brown earths, transitional red brown earth, sands over clay and deep sands. Stream valleys and layered soil and sedimentary materials are found across the landscape. <br /><br /> The flux station tower extends to 20m, however flux measurements are recorded from slightly lower than this. Mean annual precipitation from a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site measured 465 mm. Maximum temperatures ranged from 37.4°C (in January) to 16.6°C (in July), while minimum temperatures ranged from 29.0°C (in January) to 11.8°C (in July). Maximum temperatures varied on a seasonal basis by approximately 20.8°C and minimum temperatures by 17.2°C. <br /> The site is within a wider research area (60 x 60 km) that supports a network of flux stations, which have been in operation since late 2001 onwards.<br /><br /> This data is also available at http://data.ozflux.org.au .

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.4.7) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br> <br>The Cumberland Plain flux station is located in a dry sclerophyll forest. The Cumberland Plain Woodland is now an endangered ecological community that encompasses distinct groupings of plants growing on clayey soils. The canopy is dominated by <em>Eucalyptus moluccana</em> and <em>Eucalyptus fibrosa</em>, which host an expanding population of mistletoe. Average canopy height is 23&nbsp;m, the elevation of the site is 20&nbsp;m and mean annual precipitation is 800&nbsp;mm. Fluxes of water vapour, carbon dioxide and heat are quantified with the open-path eddy flux technique from a 30&nbsp;m tall mast. Additional measurements above the canopy include temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave and longwave radiation and net, diffuse and direct radiation and the photochemical reflectance index. In addition, profiles of humidity and CO<sub>2</sub> are measured at eight levels within the canopy, as well as measurements of soil moisture content, soil heat fluxes, soil temperature, and 10&nbsp;hr fuel moisture dynamics. In addition, regular monitoring of understory species abundance, mistletoe infection, leaf area index and litterfall are also performed.

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.4.17) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br><br> The Gatum Pasture flux station, established in February 2015, was located on private farmland in southwestern Victoria, approximately 300&nbsp;km west of Melbourne. The pasture is composed of winter-active perennial grasses (<em>Phalaris aquatica</em> L. and <em>Trifolium subteraneum</em> L.) and is used for sheep and, sporadically, cattle grazing.</br>

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.4.17) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br> <br>The Alpine Peatland flux station was established in 2017 at Heathy Spur I, an alpine sphagnum bog on the Bogong High Plains recognised by Parks Victoria as a reference ecosystem for this endangered ecological community. The vegetation is dominated by the peat-forming moss <em>Sphagnum cristatum</em>, as well as typical peatland species including candle heath (<em>Richea continentis</em>), alpine baeckea (<em>Baeckea gunniana</em>) and rope rush (<em>Empodisma minus</em>). The Alpine Peatland tower typically experiences a mild growing season from October to June and 2-3 months of snow cover from July to September.<br />

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.5.0) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br> <br /> The flux station is located within an area of dryland agriculture. The surrounding area is dominated by broadacre farming practices. The vegetation cover is predominantly pasture. Elevation of the site is close to 330&nbsp;m. Climate information comes from the nearby Pingelly BoM AWS station 010626 (1991 to 2016) and shows mean annual precipitation is approximately 445&nbsp;mm with highest rainfall in June and July of 81&nbsp;mm each month. Maximumum and minuimum annual rainfall is 775 and 217&nbsp;mm, respectively. Maximum temperatures range from 31.9&nbsp;°C (in Jan) to 15.4&nbsp;°C (in July), while minimum temperatures range from 5.5&nbsp;°C (in July) to 16.0&nbsp;°C (in Feb).<br /><br />

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.4.7) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br> <br>Silver Plains Flux Station was established in 2019 in Interlaken, on the Tasmanian Central Plateau, on land owned and managed by the Tasmanian Land Conservancy.</br>

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    This data release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in semi-arid eucalypt woodland using eddy covariance techniques. It been processed using PyFluxPro (v3.3.3) as described in Isaac et al. (2017), <a href="https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017">https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017</a>. PyFluxPro takes data recorded at the flux tower and process this data to a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER). For more information about the processing levels, see <a href="https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki">https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki</a>. <br /> <br /> The Wombat State Forest site is a secondary re-growth forest that was last harvested in 1980. Dominant tree species are <em>Eucalyptus obliqua</em> (messmate stringybark), <em>Eucalyptus radiata</em> (narrow leaf peppermint) and <em>Eucalyptus rubida</em> (candlebark) with an average canopy height of 25m. The understorey consists mainly of patchy grasses and the soil is a silty-clay overlying clay. The forest is managed by the Department of Sustainability and Environment and management includes selective harvesting and prescribed burning regimes. The climate of the study area is classified as cool-temperate to Mediterranean zone with cold and wet winters (May-Aug) and warm and dry summers (Dec-Feb) with a temperature range: 1-30 °C and mean annual air temperature (2001-2012): 12.1°C. Annual rainfall is approximately 871 mm (142 year long-term average). Coherent automated measurements of soil greenhouse gas fluxes (CO2, CH4 and N2O) were collected using a trailer-mounted mobile laboratory – Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectrometer from 2010 to 2016. Measurement height was 30m but increased to 33m from January 2017<br /><br />