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    This terrestrial LiDAR dataset captures detailed vegetation structural information at the Wombat Stringybark Eucalypt SuperSite in the Wombat State Forest, near Ballarat, Victoria, Australia. The purpose of this data is to enhance understanding of vegetation dynamics and ecosystem function in the region. The dataset is part of a broader collection of Terrestrial LiDAR data acquired from all TERN SuperSites, aimed at achieving a standardized and highly detailed capture of 3D vegetation structure across Australia.

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    This terrestrial LiDAR dataset captures detailed vegetation structural information at the Fletcherview Tropical Rangeland SuperSite, located 50km west of Townsville, Queensland, Australia. The purpose of this data is to enhance understanding of vegetation dynamics and ecosystem function in the region. The dataset is part of a broader collection of Terrestrial LiDAR data acquired from all TERN SuperSites, aimed at achieving a standardized and highly detailed capture of 3D vegetation structure across Australia.

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    This terrestrial LiDAR dataset captures detailed vegetation structural information at the Cumblerland Plain Woodland SuperSite in Western Sydney, Australia. The purpose of this data is to enhance understanding of vegetation dynamics and ecosystem function in the region. The dataset is part of a broader collection of Terrestrial LiDAR data acquired from all TERN SuperSites, aimed at achieving a standardized and highly detailed capture of 3D vegetation structure across Australia.

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    This terrestrial LiDAR dataset captures detailed vegetation structural information at the Gingin Banksia Woodland SuperSite on the Swan Coastal Plain, approximately 80 km north of Perth, Western Australia. The purpose of this data is to enhance understanding of vegetation dynamics and ecosystem function in the region. The dataset is part of a broader collection of Terrestrial LiDAR data acquired from all TERN SuperSites, aimed at achieving a standardized and highly detailed capture of 3D vegetation structure across Australia.

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.4.17) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br><br> The Yarramundi Irrigated site is an improved, managed pasture on the Western Sydney University Hawkesbury campus. Original woodland vegetation was cleared prior to 1950. A mixture of native and exotic grasses and forbs dominate the site, which is used by cattle in an intensively managed grazing operation. The flux tower was established in October of 2019 and is managed by the Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment, with partial support from TERN and WSU Office of Estate and Commercial (Farm Production Unit).</br> <br>The climate is warm-temperate, with annual rainfall averaging 728&nbsp;mm, mean maximum temperature in January of 30.4&deg;C and mean minimum temperature in July of 3.6&deg;C (BOM station 067105). The elevation of the site is about 20&nbsp;m asl and the topography is flat. The soil is sandy loam in texture, organic carbon content is <1%.</br>

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.4.15) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br> <br>The Cape Tribulation flux station was located in the land that is adjacent to the Daintree National Park which is part of the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area (WTWHA). The site is flanked to the west by coastal ranges rising to more than 1400&nbsp;m and to the east by the Coral Sea. The red clay loam podzolic soils are of metamorphic origin and have good drainage characteristics. The metamorphic rocks grade into granite boulders along Thompson Creek which runs along the northern boundary of the site. The crane site itself is gently sloping but the fetch area makes the site one of very complex terrain. The forest is classed as complex mesophyll vine forest (type 1a) and has an average canopy height of 25m. The dominant canopy trees belong to the <i>Apocynaceae</i>, <i>Arecaceae</i>, <i>Euphorbiaceae</i>, <i>Lauraceae</i>, <i>Meliaceae</i>, <i>Myristicaceae</i> and <i>Myrtaceae</i> families. The forest is continuous for several kilometres around the crane except for an area 300&nbsp;m due east of the crane, which is regrowth forest. Annual average rainfall at the site is around 5180&nbsp;mm and is strongly seasonal, with 66% falling between January and April (wet season). Mean daily temperature ranges from 26.6&nbsp;°C in February to 21.2&nbsp;°C in July. </br> <br> Tropical cyclones are a frequent occurrence in Far North Queensland. These severe tropical storm systems are natural phenomena which play a major role in determining the ecology of Queensland's tropical lowland rainforests. In March 1999 Tropical Cyclone Rona (Category 3) passed over the Cape Tribulation area causing widespread damage (gusts >170&nbsp;km/h). At the site several large trees fell, nearly all of the remaining trees were stripped of leaves and the lianas towers were torn to ground level. </br> <br> The flux station was mounted at the 45&nbsp;m level on the tower of the Australian Canopy Crane external link. The canopy crane is a Liebherr 91 EC, freestanding construction tower crane. The crane is 48.5&nbsp;m tall with a radius of 55&nbsp;m enabling access to 1 hectare of rainforest. Fluxes of heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide were measured using the open-path eddy covariance technique. Supplementary measurements above the canopy included temperature, humidity, rainfall, total solar; these measurements have continued post the flux system decommissioning. Heat flux, soil temperature and water content (time domain reflectometry) were measured in proximity to the flux station; these measurements have continued post the flux system decommissioning. Detailed biometric measurements are made at the crane site and all trees have regular (5 yearly) dbh measurements and canopy mapping carried out. Monitoring bores (3) are located on site. Leaf litter measurements are carried out on a monthly basis.

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.5.0) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br> <br>Ti Tree East site was established in July 2012 and is managed by the University of Technology Sydney. Pine Hill Station is a functioning cattle station that has been in operation for longer than 50 years. However, the east side has not been stocked in over three years. The site is a mosaic of the primary semi-arid biomes of central Australia: grassy mulga woodland and <em>Corymbia/Triodia</em> savanna.The woodland is characterised by a mulga (<em>Acacia aneura</em>) canopy, which is 4.85&nbsp;m tall on average. The soil is red sand overlying an 8&nbsp;m deep water table. Elevation of the site is 553&nbsp;m above sea level, and the terrain is flat. Mean annual precipitation at the nearby (30&nbsp;km to the south) Bureau of Meteorology station is 305.9&nbsp;mm but ranges between 100&nbsp;mm in 2009 to 750&nbsp;mm in 2010. Predominant wind directions are from the southeast and east.</br> <br>The instrument mast is 10&nbsp;m tall. Fluxes of heat, water vapour and carbon are measured using the open-path eddy covariance technique at 9.81&nbsp;m. Supplementary measurements above the canopy include temperature and humidity (9.81&nbsp;m), windspeed and wind direction (8.28&nbsp;m), downwelling and upwelling shortwave and longwave radiation (9.9&nbsp;m). Precipitation is monitored in the savanna (2.5&nbsp;m). Supplementary measurements within and below the canopy include barometric pressure (2&nbsp;m). Below ground soil measurements are made beneath Triodia, mulga and grassy understorey and include ground heat flux (0.08&nbsp;m), soil temperature (0.02&nbsp;m - 0.06&nbsp;m) and soil moisture (0 - 0.1&nbsp;m, 0.1 - 0.3&nbsp;m, 0.6 - 0.8&nbsp;m and 1.0 - 1.2&nbsp;m).</br>

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.5.0) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br><br> The Loxton site was established in August 2008 and decommissioned in June 2009. The orchard was divided into 10&nbsp;ha blocks (200&nbsp;m by 500&nbsp;m with the long axis aligned north–south) and the flux tower was situated at 34.47035&nbsp;°S and 140.65512&nbsp;°E near the middle of the northern half of a block of trees. The topography of the site was slightly undulating and the area around the tower had a slope of less than 1.5&nbsp;°. The orchard was planted in 2000 with an inter-row spacing of 7&nbsp;m and a within row spacing of 5&nbsp;m. Tree height in August 2008 was 5.5&nbsp;m. The study block consists of producers, Nonpareil, planted every other row, and pollinators planted as alternating rows of Carmel, Carmel and Peerless, and Carmel and Price. All varieties were planted on Nemaguard rootstock. All but 31&nbsp;ha of the surrounding orchard was planted between 1999 and 2002. Nutrients were applied via fertigation. Dosing occurred between September and November and in April with KNO<sub>3</sub>, Urea, KCl, and NH<sub>4</sub>NO<sub>3</sub> applied at annual rates of 551, 484, 647, and 113&nbsp;kg/ha, respectively. The growth of ground cover along the tree line was suppressed with herbicides throughout the year. Growth in the mid-row began in late winter and persisted until herbicide application in late November. The research was supported with funds from the National Action Plan for Salinity via the Centre for Natural Resource Management, and the River Murray Levy.

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.4.17) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br> <br><em>Eucalyptus obliqua</em> forests dominate the vegetation below 650&nbsp;m where they exist as fire-maintained communities. On fertile soils these forests attain mature heights in excess of 55&nbsp;m: the tallest <em>E. obliqua</em> reaches a height of 90&nbsp;m. The flux station is installed in a stand of tall, mixed-aged <em>E. obliqua</em> forest (77 and >250 years-old) with a rainforest understorey and a dense man-fern (<em>Dicksonia antarctica</em>) ground-layer, on a small flat of elevation 100&nbsp;m adjacent to the Huon River. The understorey vegetation progresses from wet sclerophyll (dominated by <em>Pomaderris apatala</em> and <em>Acacia dealbata</em>) to rainforest (dominated by <em>Nothofagus cunninghamii</em>, <em>Atherosperma moschatum</em>, <em>Eucryphia lucida</em> and <em>Phyllocladus aspleniifolius</em>) with increasing time intervals between fire events. The site supports prodigous quantities of coarse woody debris as is characteristic of these fire-maintained eucalypt forests on fertile sites in southern Tasmania. The soil at the flux site is derived from Permian mudstone and has a gradational profile with a dark brown organic clayey silt topsoil overlying a yellow brown clay. The climate is classified as temperate with a mild summer and no dry season. Mean annual precipitation is 1700&nbsp;mm with a relatively uniform seasonal distribution. Summer temperatures peak in January (8.4&nbsp;°C to 19.2&nbsp;°C) with winter temperatures reaching their lowest in July (2.6&nbsp;°C to 8.4&nbsp;°C).</br> <br>The instruments are mounted at the top of an 80&nbsp;m tall guyed steel lattice tower. Supplementary measurements above the canopy include temperature, humidity, windspeed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation. An open-path gas analyser (EC150) was replaced by a closed-path gas analyser (EC155) at the end of January 2015. Soil moisture content is measured using time domain reflectometry. Soil heat fluxes and temperature are also measured. Micro-meteorology (CO<sub>2</sub>, H<sub>2</sub>O, energy fluxes) and meteorology (temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, rainfall) were measured from 2013 to late 2016, but the dataset is incomplete due to ongoing problems since changing the open-path IRGA to a closed path system (CPEC200) during 2015. Soil data (moisture, heat flux, temperature) are complete for the time period.</br>

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    This terrestrial LiDAR dataset captures detailed vegetation structural information at the Warra Tall Eucalypt SuperSite in southern Tasmania, Australia. The purpose of this data is to enhance understanding of vegetation dynamics and ecosystem function in the region. The dataset is part of a broader collection of Terrestrial LiDAR data acquired from all TERN SuperSites, aimed at achieving a standardized and highly detailed capture of 3D vegetation structure across Australia.