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    The Howard Springs flux station is located in the Black Jungle Conservation Reserve in the Northern Territory south east of Darwin.The flux tower site is classified as an open woodland savanna. The overstory is co-dominated by tree species Eucalyptus miniata and Eucalyptus tentrodonata, and average tree height is 14–16m.Elevation of the site is close to 64m and mean annual precipitation is 1750mm. Maximum temperatures range from 30.4°C (in July) to 33.2°C (in November), while minimum temperatures range from 19.3°C (in July) to 25.4°C (in November). Therefore, the maximum and minimum range varies from 7°C (wet season) to 11°C (dry season).The instrument mast is 23m tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements are taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation are measured above the canopy.Soil heat fluxes are measured and soil moisture content is gathered using time domain reflectometry.

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    The Daly River Pasture flux station was located 62km south west of Pine Creek, Northern Territory. It was established in November 2007 and managed by Monash University and Charles Darwin University until the site was destroyed by fire in September 2013. The flux tower site was identified as tropical pasture, and the vegetation was dominated by species Chamaecrista rotundifolia (Round-leaf cassia cv. Wynn), Digitaria milijiana (Jarra grass) and Aristida sp. standing at approximately 0.3m tall. The soil at the site was a mixture of red kandosol and deep sand. Elevation of the site was close to 70m and mean annual precipitation at a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site is 1250mm. Maximum temperatures ranged from 37.5°C (in October) to 31.2°C (in June), while minimum temperatures ranged from 12.6°C (in July) to 23.8°C (in January). Maximum temperatures varied on a seasonal basis between 6.3°C while minimum temperatures varied by 11.2°C. The instrument mast was 15 meters tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements were taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation were measured. Ancillary measurements taken at the site included LAI, leaf-scale physiological properties (gas exchange, leaf isotope ratios, N and chlorophyll concentrations), vegetation optical properties and soil physical properties. Airborne based remote sensing (Lidar and hyperspectral measurements) was carried out across the transect in September 2008.

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    Invertebrates dominate the animal world in terms of abundance, diversity and biomass and play critical roles in maintaining ecosystem function. Despite their obvious importance, disproportionate research attention remains focused on vertebrates, with knowledge and understanding of invertebrate ecology still lacking. Due to their inherent advantages, usage of camera traps in ecology has risen dramatically over the last three decades, especially for research on mammals. However, few studies have used cameras to reliably detect fauna such as invertebrates or used cameras to examine specific aspects of invertebrate ecology. Twenty-four Reconyx PC800 HyperfireTM cameras were deployed on 7th July 2016 at Main Camp and left until 12th October 2016 (98 days, or 2352 h of deployment) in the Simpson Desert, south-western Queensland, capturing 372 time-lapse images of Wolf spiders (Family Lycosidae). Images were tagged with camera location, position, angle, camera ID and presence of lycosids. Additionally, spotlight surveys were conducted in October 2016 every hour between dusk (19:30 h) and dawn (05:30 h) over three nights with a total of 352 lycosids observed. This data set was used to determine whether: 1) camera traps provide a viable method for detecting wolf spiders, 2) diel activity patterns of the spiders can be ascertained, and 3) patterns in spider activity vary with environmental conditions, specifically between burned and unburned habitats and the crests and bases of sand dunes. This data presents a useful example of the utility of cameras as a tool for determining the diel activity patterns and habitat use of larger arthropods such as wolf spiders. Please note: Camera trap images are not provided and only species occurrence records are included. Also, image files were renamed after collection, resulting in a number versus time conflict. However, dates and times of sightings provided are correct.

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    Heatwaves are defined as unusually high temperature events that occur for at least three consecutive days with major impacts to human health, economy, agriculture and ecosystems. This dataset provides time-series of heatwave characteristics such as peak temperature, number of events, frequency and duration from 1950 to 2016 in Australia. The analysis were based on daily minimum and maximum temperature obtained from the Australian Water Availability Project (AWAP). The data is available as spatial time-series (5km grid-cell) and aggregated time-series for all Local Government Areas in Australia.

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    Vegetation Fractional Cover represents the exposed proportion of Photosynthetic Vegetation (PV), Non-Photosynthetic Vegetation (NPV) and Bare Soil (BS) within each pixel. The sum of the three fractions is 100% (+/- 3%) and shown in Red/Green/Blue colors. In forested canopies the photosynthetic or non-photosynthetic portions of trees may obscure those of the grass layer and/or bare soil. This product is derived from the MODIS Nadir BRDF-Adjusted Reflectance product (MCD43A4) collection 6 and has 500 meters spatial resolution. A suite of derivative products are also produced including monthly fractional cover, total vegetation cover (PV+NPV), and anomaly of total cover against the time series. Monthly: The monthly product is aggregated from the 8-day composites using the medoid method. Anomaly: represents the difference between total vegetation cover (PV+NPV) in a given month and the mean total vegetation cover for that month in all years available, expressed in units of cover. For example, if the mean vegetation cover in January (2001-current year) was 40% and the vegetation cover for the pixel in January 2018 was 30%, the anomaly for the pixel in Jan 2018 would be -10%. Decile: represents the ranking (in ten value intervals) for the total vegetation cover in a given month in relation to the vegetation cover in that month for all years in the time-series. MODIS fractional cover has been validated for Australia.

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    <p>This data set provides the photosynthetic pathways for 2428 species recorded across 541 plots surveyed by Australia’s Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) between 2011 and 2017 (inclusive). TERN survey plots are 1 ha (100 x 100 m) permanently established sites located in a homogeneous area of terrestrial vegetation. At each plot, TERN survey teams record vegetation composition and structural characteristics and collect a range of plant samples using a point-intercept method. Species were assigned a photosynthetic pathway using literature and carbon stable isotope analysis of bulk tissue collected by TERN at the survey plots. </p><p>The data set is comprised of two data tables and one data descriptor that defines the values in the two data tables. The first table contains a list of each species and its photosynthetic pathway. The second table includes a list of all the peer-reviewed sources used to create this data set. </p><p>This data set will be updated on an annual basis as TERN’s plot network expands and new information becomes available. </p>

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    The seasonal fractional cover product shows representative values for the proportion of bare, green and non-green cover, created from a time series of Sentinel 2 imagery. It is a spatially explicit raster product, which predicts vegetation cover at medium resolution (10 m per-pixel) for each 3-month calendar season. The green and non-green fractions may include a mix of woody and non-woody vegetation. This model was originally developed for Landsat imagery, but has been adapted for us with Sentinel-2 imagery to produce a 10 m resolution equivalent product.

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    <p>Digital Cover Photography (DCP) upward-looking images are collected twice per year to capture vegetation cover within the core hectare at Cumberland Plain SuperSite. These images can be used to estimate Leaf area index (LAI), Crown Cover or Foliage Projective Cover (FPC). The images are captured at the times of estimated maximum and minimum LAI. In addition, DCP images have been taken on a monthly basis from 2018-2020 at a subset of sites in the core hectare, co-located with litterfall traps and under-canopy radiation sensors, to evaluate more detailed seasonal dynamics of LAI and other aspects of canopy growth. </p><p>The Cumberland Plain SuperSite was established in 2012 in endangered remnant Eucalyptus woodland and is subject to pressure from invasive weeds, altered fire regimes, urban development, conversion to agriculture and extreme climate events. However, the woodland is in excellent condition with the exception of edge effects. The site is located on the Hawkesbury Campus of the University of Western Sydney in New South Wales. For additional site information, see https://deims.org/a1bb29d8-197c-4181-90d8-76083afd44bb/ . </p><p>Other images collected at the site include photopoints, phenocam time-lapse images taken from fixed overstorey cameras, and ancillary images of fauna and flora. </p>

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    <p>Digital Cover Photography (DCP) upward-looking images are collected up to twice per year to capture vegetation cover at Tumbarumba Wet Eucalypt SuperSite. These images can be used to estimate Leaf area index (LAI), Crown Cover or Foliage Projective Cover (FPC). </p><p> The Tumbarumba Flux site was established in 2000 and started measuring in 2001. The 1 hectare (ha) SuperSite plot was established in 2015. Preliminary images have been captured since 2000 using various sampling strategies and protocols. Since 2015 the 1 ha Supersite has had a consistent DCP protocol implemented twice per year. The overstorey is dominated by <em>Eucalyptus delegatensis</em> and <em>Eucalyptus dalrympleana</em>. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/tumbarumba-wet-eucalypt-supersite/ .</p><p> Other images collected at the site include photopoints, phenocam time-lapse images taken from fixed under and overstorey cameras, and ancillary images of fauna and flora. </p>

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    An estimate of persistent green cover per season. This is intended to estimate the portion of vegetation that does not completely senesce within a year, which primarily consists of woody vegetation (trees and shrubs), although there are exceptions where non-woody cover remains green all year round. It is derived by fitting a multi-iteration minimum weighted smoothing spline through the green fraction of the seasonal fractional cover (dim) time series.