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    Ecosystem flux data from the Ti Tree East flux station, located on Pine Hill cattle station in the Northern Territory. The site was established in July 2012 and is managed by the University of Technology Sydney.Pine Hill Station is a functioning cattle station that has been in operation for longer than 50 years. However, the east side has not been stocked in over three years. The site is a mosaic of the primary semi-arid biomes of central Australia: grassy mulga woodland and Corymbia/Triodia savanna.The woodland is characterised by a mulga (Acacia aneura) canopy, which is 4.85 m tall on average. The soil is red sand overlying an 8 m deep water table. Elevation of the site is 553 m above sea level, and the terrain is flat.Mean annual precipitation at the nearby (30 km to the south) Bureau of Meteorology station is 305.9 mm but ranges between 100 mm in 2009 to 750 mm in 2010. Predominant wind directions are from the southeast and east.The instrument mast is 10 m tall. Fluxes of heat, water vapour and carbon are measured using the open-path eddy covariance technique at 9.81 m.Supplementary measurements above the canopy include temperature and humidity (9.81 m), windspeed and wind direction (8.28 m), downwelling and upwelling shortwave and longwave radiation (9.9 m).Precipitation is monitored in the savanna (2.5m). Supplementary measurements within and below the canopy include barometric pressure (2 m).Belowground soil measurements are made beneath Triodia, mulga and grassy understorey and include ground heat flux (0.08 m), soil temperature (0.02 m – 0.06 m) and soil moisture (0 – 0.1 m, 0.1 – 0.3 m, 0.6 – 0.8 m and 1.0 – 1.2 m).

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    This website provides access to data used in the Multi-Criteria Analysis Shell for Spatial Decision Support (MCAS-S) software tool. From the Data menu, explore and download individual supplementary layers, or download the entire datapack. The Multi-Criteria Analysis Shell for Spatial Decision Support (MCAS-S) is a software tool developed by the Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences that enables multi-criteria analysis (MCA) using spatial data. It is a powerful, easy-to-use and flexible decision-support tool that promotes: - framework for assessing options - common metric for classifying, ranking and weighting of the data - tools to compare, combine and explore spatial data - live-update of alternative scenarios and trade-offs.

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    The Cape Tribulation flux station is located in lowland tropical rainforest at the Daintree Rainforest Observatory located near Cape Tribulation, Queensland. The land is adjacent to the Daintree National Park which is part of the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area (WTWHA).The site is flanked to the west by coastal ranges rising to more than 1400m and to the east by the Coral Sea. The red clay loam podzolic soils are of metamorphic origin and have good drainage characteristics. The metamorphic rocks grade into granite boulders along Thompson Creek which runs along the northern boundary of the site. The crane site itself is gently sloping but the fetch area makes the site one of very complex terrain.The forest is classed as complex mesophyll vine forest (type 1a) and has an average canopy height of 25m. The dominant canopy trees belong to the Apocynaceae, Arecaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lauraceae, Meliaceae, Myristicaceae and Myrtaceae families. The forest is continuous for several kilometres around the crane except for an area 300m due east of the crane, which is regrowth forest.Annual average rainfall at the site is around 5180mm and is strongly seasonal, with 66% falling between January and April (wet season). Mean daily temperature ranges from 26.6°C in February to 21.2°C in July.Tropical Cyclone impactsTropical cyclones are a frequent occurrence in Far North Queensland. These severe tropical storm systems are natural phenomena which play a major role in determining the ecology of Queensland's tropical lowland rainforests. In March 1999 Tropical Cyclone Rona (Category 3) passed over the Cape Tribulation area causing widespread damage (gusts >170km/h). At the site several large trees fell, nearly all of the remaining trees were stripped of leaves and the lianas towers were torn to ground level.Australian Canopy CraneThe flux station is mounted at the 45m level on the tower of the crane.The canopy crane is a Liebherr 91 EC, freestanding construction tower crane. The crane is 48.5 metres tall with a radius of 55 metres enabling access to 1 hectare of rainforest.Fluxes of heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide are measured using the open-path eddy covariance technique. Supplementary measurements above the canopy include temperature, humidity, rainfall, total solar, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and net radiation.Heat flux, soil temperature and water content (time domain reflectometry) are measured in proximity to the flux station. Detailed biometric measurements are made at the crane site and all trees have regular (5 yearly) dbh measurements and canopy mapping carried. Monitoring bores (3) are located on site. Leaf litter measurements are carried out on a monthly basis.The Cape Tribulation flux station was established in March 2001 and is managed by James Cook University.

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    Ecosystem flux data from the Alice Springs site, Northern Territory.The Alice Springs Mulga flux station is located on Pine Hill cattle station, near Alice Springs in the Northern Territory.The woodland is characterised by a mulga (Acacia aneura) canopy, which is 6.5m tall on average. Elevation of the site is 606m above sea level, and the terrain is flat. Mean annual precipitation at the nearby (45km distant) Bureau of Meteorology station is 305.9mm but ranges between 100mm in 2009 to 750mm in 2010. Predominant wind directions are from the southeast and east.The extent of the woodland is 11km to the east of the flux station and 16km to the south. The soil is red sandy clay (50:50 sand:clay) overlying a 49m deep water table. Pine Hill Station is a functioning cattle station that has been in operation for longer than 50 years.The instrument mast is 13.7m tall. Fluxes of heat, water vapour and carbon are measured using the open-path eddy covariance technique at 11.6m. Supplementary measurements above the canopy include temperature and humidity (11.6m), windspeed and wind direction (9.25m), downwelling and upwelling shortwave and longwave radiation (12.2m). Precipitation is monitored in a canopy gap (2.5m). Supplementary measurements within and below the canopy include barometric pressure (1m), wind speed (2m, 4.25m and 6.5m), and temperature and humidity (2m, 4.25m and 6m).Belowground soil measurements are made in bare soil, mulga, and understory habitats and include ground heat flux (0.08m), soil temperature (0.02m – 0.06m) and soil moisture (0 – 0.1m, 0.1 – 0.3m, 0.6 – 0.8m and 1.0 – 1.2m).Ancillary measurements include soil water and carbon fluxes, leaf water potential, leaf gas exchange, stem basal area, stem growth, litter production, leaf area index, stem hydraulic conductance, and carbon and water stable isotope ratios.The site was established in September 2010 in conjunction with the Woodforde River NGCRT Superscience Site and is managed by the University of Technology Sydney.

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    Vertical plant profiles for the Australian continent were derived through integration of ICESat GLAS waveforms with ALOS PALSAR and Landsat data products. Co-registered Landsat Foliage Projected Cover (FPC) and ALOS PALSAR L-band HH and HV mosaics were segmented to generate objects with similar radar backscatter and cover characteristics. Within these, height, cover, age class and L-band backscatter characteristics were summarised based on the ICESat and Landsat time-series and ALOS PALSAR datasets.

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    The Sturt Plains flux station is located approximately 280km north of Tennant Creek, Northern Territory. It was established in August 2008 and is managed by Monash University external and Charles Darwin University. The Sturt Plains OzFlux Site is located on a low lying plain dominated by Mitchell Grass (gen. Astrebla). Elevation of the site is close to 250m and mean annual precipitation at a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site is 640mm.Maximum temperatures range from 28.4°C (in June/ July) to 39.1°C (in December), while minimum temperatures range from 11.2°C (in July) to 24.4°C (in December).The instrument mast is 5 meters tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements are taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall and net radiation are measured. Soil heat fluxes are measured and soil moisture content is gathered using time domain reflectometry.Ancillary measurements taken at the site include LAI, leaf-scale physiological properties (gas exchange, leaf isotope ratios, N and chlorophyll concentrations), vegetation optical properties and soil physical properties. Airborne based remote sensing (Lidar and hyperspectral measurements) was carried out across the transect in September 2008.

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    Ecosystem flux data from Emerald in central Queensland.The Arcturus greenhouse gas (GHG) monitoring station was established in July 2010 48 km southeast of Emerald, Queensland, with flux tower measurements starting in June 2011 until early 2014. The station was part of a collaborative project between Geoscience Australia (GA) and CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research (CMAR). Elevation of the site was approximately 170m asl and mean annual precipitation was 572mm. The tower borderered 2 land use types split N-S: To the west lightly forested tussock grasslands; To the east crop lands, cycling through fallow periods.The instruments were installed on a square lattice tower with an adjustable pulley lever system to raise and lower the instrument arm. The tower was 5.6m tall with the instrument mast extending a further 1.1m above, totalling a height of 6.7m. Fluxes of heat, water vapour, methane and carbon dioxide were measured using the open-path eddy flux technique. Supplementary measurements above the canopy included temperature, humidity, windspeed, wind direction, rainfall, and the 4 components of net radiation. Soil heat flux, soil moisture and soil temperature measurements were also collected.

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    This product provides locations of areas affected by fire including the approximate day of burning. Inputs are daily day time observations from MODIS sensors on Terra and Aqua. Observations are atmospherically corrected and the resulting time series is investigated for sudden changes in reflectance, persistent over multiple days. Variations in observation and illumination geometry are taken into account through application of a kernel driven BRDF model.

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    The Australian cosmic-ray soil moisture monitoring network was first established in 2010 to provide Australian and global researchers with spatially distributed intermediate scale soil moisture observations. A cosmic-ray sensor (CRS) provides continuous estimates of soil moisture over an area of approximately 30 hectares by measuring naturally generated fast neutrons (energy 10–1000 eV) that are produced by cosmic rays passing through the Earth’s atmosphere. The neutron intensity above the land surface is inversely correlated with soil moisture as it responds to the hydrogen contained in the soil and to a lesser degree to plant and soil carbon compounds. The cosmic-ray technique is also passive, non-contact, and is largely insensitive to bulk density, surface roughness, the physical state of water, and soil texture. The scale of CRS measurements fills the void between point scale sensor measurements and large scale satellite observations. The depth of measurements varies with the moisture content of the soil but is typically between 10-30 cm. The depth of observations is reported as ‘effective depth’. The CosmOz network is expanding as new sensors are added over time. The initial network was funded by CSIRO Land and Water but more recently TERN has funded work to maintain the network add new sensors and deliver data more efficiently. The standard CRS installation includes; a cosmic-ray neutron tube, a rain gauge (2m high), temperature and humidity sensors, and an atmospheric pressure sensor. Measures of all parameters are reported at an hourly interval. Each CRS requires an in-field calibration across the footprint of measurements to convert neutron counts to soil moisture content. The calibration includes collection of soil samples for bulk density, lattice water content and soil organic carbon. The extent of the network and available data can be seen at the CosmOz network web page: https://cosmoz.csiro.au/ The calibration and correction procedures used by the network are described by Hawdon et al. 2014.

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    The Dry River flux station is located approximately 89km south of Katherine, Northern Territory. The site was established in 2008 and is managed by The University of Western Australia and Charles Darwin University.The flux tower site is classified as open forest savanna. The overstory is co-dominated by tree species E. tetrodonta, E. dichromophloia, C. terminalis, Sorghum intrans, S. plumosum, Themeda triandra and Chrysopogon fallax, with canopy height averaging 12.3m.Elevation of the site is close to 175m and mean annual precipitation from a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site measures 895.3mm.Maximum temperatures range from 29.1°C (in June) to 37.6°C (in July), while minimum temperatures range from 14.6°C (in July) to 24.8°C (in November). Maximum temperatures vary seasonally by 8.5°C and minimum by 10.2°C.The instrument mast is 15 meters tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements are taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation are measured above the canopy. Soil heat fluxes are measured and soil moisture content is gathered using time domain reflectometry.Ancillary measurements taken at the site include LAI, leaf-scale physiological properties (gas exchange, leaf isotope ratios, N and chlorophyll concentrations), vegetation optical properties and soil physical properties. Airborne based remote sensing (Lidar and hyperspectral measurements) was carried out across the transect in September 2008.