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environment

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    High quality digital site reference images are captured for the core 1 hectare (ha) vegetation plot of the site on an annual basis to provide context for researchers to understand the general layout and vegetation of the study site, and as a visual reference to monitor any changes over time. Photopoints will be taken annually using the five point photopoint method. The set of images for each year usually consists of twenty images: four images taken at each corner of the plot facing each of the four cardinal points, and four images taken from the centre of the plot facing each corner. <br /><br /> The Tumbarumba Flux site was established in 2000 and started measuring in 2001. The 1 ha plot was established in 2015. Preliminary images have been captured since 2000 using various sampling strategies and protocols. The overstorey is dominated by <em>Eucalyptus delegatensis</em> and <em>Eucalyptus dalrympleana</em>. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/tumbarumba-wet-eucalypt-supersite/.<br /><br/> Other images collected at the site include digital cover photography, phenocam time-lapse images taken from fixed under and overstorey cameras, and ancillary images of fauna and flora.

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    <p>This dataset contains audio files for TERN Mitchell Grass Rangeland SuperSite. Long-term recordings of the environment can be used to identify sound sources of interest, characterise the soundscape, aid in the assessment of fauna biodiversity, monitor temporal trends and track environmental changes.</p> <p>Mitchell Grass Rangeland SuperSite is located at Rosebank Station, approximately 11 km south-east of Longreach in Queensland. The site is arid tussock grassland with a variety of grass species including <em>Astrebla lappacea</em> and <em>Astrebla squarrosa</em> over black vertosol soil that supports sheep and beef cattle grazing. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/mitchell-grass-rangeland-supersite/.</p> <p>In 2020 four acoustic recorders were set up to collect audio data continuously as part of the Australian Acoustic Observatory (A2O) project. Two recorders were placed in relatively wet habitats and two in relatively dry habitats.</p>

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    <p>Fixed cameras installed at the Warra Tall Eucalypt SuperSite provide a time series of fine scale data as a long-term record of vegetation structure and condition. This dense time series of phenocam images provides data for analysis of ecological responses to climate variability, and when consolidated across the entire terrestrial ecosystem research network, supports calibration and validation of satellite-derived remote sensing data, ensuring delivery of higher quality results for broader scale environmental monitoring products. </p> <p>Images are captured hourly during daylight hours. Images and data products, including timeseries of the Green Chromatic Coordinate (Gcc) for a region-of-interest (ROI) that delineates an area of specific vegetation type, are made available on a regular basis. </p><p> The Warra Tall Eucalypt SuperSite was established in 2012 and is located in a stand of tall, mixed-aged <em>Eucalyptus obliqua</em> forest (1.5, 125 and &gt;250 years-old) with a rainforest / wet sclerophyll understorey and a dense man-fern (<em>Dicksonia antarctica</em>) ground-layer. The site experienced a fire in January 2019, which consumed the ground layer and killed a high proportion of the understorey trees but stimulated dense seedling regeneration. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/warra-tall-eucalypt-supersite/. </p><p>Other images collected at the site include photopoints, digital cover photography (DCP), panoramic landscape, and ancillary images of fauna and flora. </p>

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    <p>Hemispherical photography has been collected across Australia to characterise plant canopy cover and structure, and to study leaf area index. Hemispherical photography is a technique for quantifying plant canopies via photographs captured through a digital camera with hemispherical or fisheye lens. Such photographs can be captured from beneath the canopy, looking upwards, (orientated towards zenith) or above the canopy looking downwards. These measurements have typically been collected in conjunction with the Statewide Landcover and Trees Study (SLATS) star transects field data together with plant canopy analysers such as LAI-2200 and CI-110.</p> <p>Data can be downloaded from https://field.jrsrp.com/ by selecting the combination Field and Hemispheric imagery. Photographs can be accesed through the right-hand side panel, or by finding the file_loc attribute in the csv file. </p>

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    The MODIS Land Condition Index (LCI) is an index of total vegetation cover (green and non-photosynthetic vegetation ), and so is also an index of soil exposure. The LCI is a normalised difference index based on MODIS bands in the mid-infrared portion of the spectrum. The index is produced from 500-m MODIS nadir BRDF adjusted reflectance (NBAR) data. As with all products derived from passive remote sensing imagery, this product represents the world as seen from above. Therefore, the cover recorded by this product represent what would be observed from a birds-eye-view. Therefore, dense canopy may prevent observation of significant soil exposure.

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    <p>This dataset contains audio files for TERN Wombat Stringybark Eucalypt SuperSite. Long-term recordings of the environment can be used to identify sound sources of interest, characterise the soundscape, aid in the assessment of fauna biodiversity, monitor temporal trends and track environmental changes.</p> <p>The site was established in 2010 in the Wombat State Forest in Central Victoria. The site is dry eucalypt forest with main species <em>Eucalyptus obliqua</em>, <em>Eucalyptus radiata</em> and <em>Euclayptus rubida</em>. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/wombat-stringybark-eucalypt-supersite/.</p> <p>In 2013 an acoustic recorder was set up to collect audio data for a total of 12 hours per day, split between six hours around dawn and six hours around dusk. The recording schedule aimed at capturing morning and evening bird choruses while minimizing memory and battery requirements. Ther recorder was intially installed near the flux tower. In July 2017 it was moved to the centre of the core 1&nbsp;Ha plot. A long-term spectrogram has been generated for each audio file to aid in data exploration. The sensor also recorded temperature, minimum- maximum- and mean-sound pressure levels.</p> <p>Data are made available through the data link. For downloading large amount of data, please follow these instructions <a href="https://ternaus.atlassian.net/wiki/spaces/TERNSup/pages/2530148353/How+to+download+TERN+s+acoustic+data+in+bulk">How to download TERN's acoustic data in bulk</a></p>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Organ Pipes National Park, Volcanic Plains Bioregion, Victoria. </br><br> Pre-European reference-analogue vegetation: Treeless basalt plain predominantly grassland dominated by Kangaroo Grass <em>Themeda triandra</em> with an array of inter-tussock species. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1830: Indigenous people manage the area</li> <li>1835: Sheep grazing commenced (shepherds)</li> <li>1851: Alienated from the Crown as freehold and fenced</li> <li>1851-1965: Area managed for dairying, an orchard and cropping and grazing modified pastures</li> <li>1965: Agricultural production abandoned</li> <li>1965-1986: Area minimally managed</li> <li>1972: Organ Pipes National Park declared</li> <li>1986-1992: Commenced species re-introduced site with supplemental plantings. Area managed to control weed and further incursions</li> <li>1989-2003: Repeated monitoring. Area lightly grazed by rabbits and macropods</li> <li>1993: Site burnt [prescribed fire]; supplemental re-vegetation with indigenous local species </li> <li>1995: Site was burnt [prescribed fire]</li> <li>1997: Site was burnt [prescribed fire] followed by drought</li> <li>2003: Ceased monitoring and enhancement to the site</li> <li>2004-10: Minimal intervention.</li></ul></br>

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    <p>Digital Cover Photography (DCP) upward-looking images were collected annually to capture vegetation cover at the TERN Karawatha Peri-Urban SuperSite. These images can be used to estimate Leaf area index (LAI), Crown Cover or Foliage Projective Cover (FPC). </p><p> The Karawatha Peri-Urban SuperSite was established in 2007 and decommissioned in 2018. The site was located in Eucalypt forest at Karawatha Forest. For additional site information, see https://deims.org/f15bc7aa-ab4a-443b-a935-dbad3e7101f4 . </p><p> Other images collected at the site include photopoints and ancilliary images of fauna and flora. </p>

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    The project brought together a group of Australian researchers and managers with a broad range of expertise to identify current and emerging economies (‘drivers’) affecting regional agricultural landscapes and to suggest beneficial transformational changes for successful adaptation. A key challenge in these landscapes is altering how we use the land for ongoing, viable production while increasing native biodiversity. The group:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>identified the major historical influences on Australian land use and the current social and economic drivers that are likely to increase in the future</li> <li>assessed the condition of five agro-climatic regions (adapted from Williams et al., 2002 and Hobbs and McIntyre, 2005) using a Delphi method. A small (4-person) expert panel scored the impact of historical and future scenarios on ten sustainability indicators (biodiversity, water, soil, social capital, built capital, food/fibre, carbon, energy, minerals and cultural). Five regions were chosen: Southern Mediterranean, Northern tropical, Central arid, North-east subtropical, and South-east temperate. This was an iterative process whereby scores were revisited until internal consistency between regions, scenarios, and indicators was achieved</li> <li>made projections of regional condition under the four global Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) based on van Vuuren et al. (2011)</li> <li>developed recommendations about land use and management, institutional and policy arrangements and social processes that will assist adaptation towards a values-rich vision of Australia in 2100.</li></ul>

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    The data set contains information on the soil water content at various depths in the Samford Ecological Research Facility (SERF), Samford Peri-Urban Site. Information on soil water content is provided from two sensors, i.e., 1) Sentek Solo, for high frequency sampling and 2) Sentek Diviner, for coarser resolution sampling.