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    Digital Cover Photography (DCP) upward-looking images are collected ideally twice per year (depending upon travel availability) to capture vegetation cover at Alice Mulga SuperSite. These images can be used to estimate Leaf area index (LAI), Crown Cover or Foliage Projective Cover (FPC). The Alice Mulga SuperSite was established in 2010 at Pine Hill Cattle Station with research plots located in low open woodland Mulga (<em>Acacia aneura</em>) and non-Acacia, hummock grassland, and river red gum forest. The core 1 ha plot is located in a dense Mulga woodland (cover 70–80%). For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/alice-mulga-supersite/ . Other images collected at the site include photopoints, phenocam time-lapse images taken from fixed under and overstorey cameras, panoramic landscape and ancillary images of fauna and flora.

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    <p>Fixed cameras installed at Gingin Banksia Woodland SuperSite provide a time series of fine scale data as a long-term record of vegetation structure and condition. This dense time series of phenocam images provides data for analysis of ecological responses to climate variability, and when consolidated across the entire terrestrial ecosystem research network, supports calibration and validation of satellite-derived remote sensing data, ensuring delivery of higher quality results for broader scale environmental monitoring products. </p> <p> Images have been captured for the understorey continuously since 2012, while images from overstorey positions are available for 2012, 2014, 2015 and 2018-2020. Images are captured at least hourly during daylight hours. New cameras will be operational at the site from the second quarter of 2021. </p> <p> The Gingin Banksia Woodland SuperSite was established in 2011 and is located in a natural woodland of high species diversity with an overstorey dominated by Banksia species. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/gingin-banksia-woodland-supersite/. </p><p> Other images collected at the site include photopoints, digital hemispheric photography (DHP), panoramic landscape and ancillary images of fauna and flora. </p>

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    <p>Digital Hemispherical Photography (DHP) upward-looking images were collected annually to capture vegetation and crown cover at Whroo Dry Eucalypt SuperSite. These images can be used to estimate Leaf area index (LAI), Crown Cover or Foliage Projective Cover (FPC). </p><p> The site was established in 2010 in box woodland dominated by <em>Eucalyptus microcarpa</em> (grey box) and <em>eucalyptus leucoxylon</em> (yellow gum). For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/whroo-dry-eucalypt-supersite/. </p><p> Other images collected at the site include photopoints, phenocam time-lapse images taken from fixed overstorey cameras and ancilliary images of fauna and flora. </p>

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    <p>Digital Hemispherical Photography (DHP) upward-looking images were collected annually to capture vegetation and crown cover at Daintree Rainforest SuperSite. These images are used to estimate Leaf Area Index (LAI). </p><p> The site is located in lowland complex mesophyll vine forest near Cape Tribulation. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/daintree-rainforest-supersite/ . </p><p> Other images collected at the site include photopoints, phenocam time-lapse images taken from fixed under and overstorey cameras and ancilliary images of fauna and flora. </p>

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    <p>Digital Hemispherical Photography (DHP) upward-looking images are collected up to twice per year to capture vegetation and crown cover at Wombat Stringybark Eucalypt SuperSite. These images are used to estimate Leaf area index (LAI). The images are captured at the times of estimated maximum and minimum LAI. </p><p> The site was established in 2010 in the Wombat State Forest in Central Victoria. The site is dry eucalypt forest with main species <em>Eucalyptus obliqua</em>, <em>Eucalyptus radiata</em> and <em>Euclayptus rubida</em>. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/wombat-stringybark-eucalypt-supersite/. </p><p> Other images collected at the site include photopoints, phenocam time-lapse images taken from fixed under and overstorey cameras and ancilliary images of fauna and flora. </p>

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    <p>Digital Hemispherical Photography (DHP) images are collected twice per year to capture vegetation and crown cover at Robson Creek Rainforest SuperSite. Images are taken at the end of the wet season and the end of the dry season and the dates will differ each year. These images are used to estimate maximum (wet season) and minimum (dry season) Leaf area index (LAI) for the rainforest biome. </p><p> The 25 hectare site was established in 2009 and lies on the Atherton Tablelands in the wet tropical rainforests of Australia at 680-740 m elevation. It is situated in Danbulla National Park within the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. The forest is classified as Regional Ecosystem (RE) 7.3.36a, complex mesophyll vine forest (Queensland Government 2006). The climate is seasonal with approximately 60% of rain falling between January and March and the landform is moderately inclined with a low relief. There are 208 species in the site, and average canopy height is 28 m, ranging from 23 to 44 m. All stems ≥ 10 cm diameter are measured, tagged and mapped. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/robson-creek-rainforest-supersite/. </p><p> Other bioimages collected at the site include photopoints, phenocam images taken from fixed under and overstorey cameras and ancillary images of fauna and flora. </p>

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    <p>Digital Hemispherical Photography (DHP) upward-looking images are collected three times per year to capture vegetation and crown cover at the Gingin Banksia Woodland SuperSite. These images are used to estimate Leaf area index (LAI). </p> <p> The Gingin Banksia Woodland SuperSite was established in 2011 and is located in a natural woodland of high species diversity with an overstorey dominated by Banksia species. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/gingin-banksia-woodland-supersite/. </p><p> Other images collected at the site include digital cover photography (DCP), photopoints, phenocam time-lapse images taken from fixed under and overstorey cameras and ancillary images of fauna and flora. </p>

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    <p>Digital Cover Photography (DCP) upward-looking images are collected twice per year in the core monitoring plot to capture vegetation cover at Great Western Woodlands SuperSite. These images can be used to estimate Leaf area index (LAI), Crown Cover or Foliage Projective Cover (FPC). The images are captured at the times of estimated maximum and minimum LAI.</p><p> The Great Western Woodlands SuperSite was established in 2012 in the Credo Conservation Reserve. The site is in semi-arid woodland and was operated as a pastoral lease from 1907 to 2007. The core 1 ha plot is characterised by <em>Eucalyptus salmonophloia</em> (salmon gum), with <em>Eucalyptus salubris</em> and <em>Eucalyptus clelandii</em> dominating other research plots. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/great-western-woodlands-supersite/ . </p><p> Other images collected at the site include photopoints, phenocam time-lapse images taken from fixed under and overstorey cameras, panoramic images and ancillary images of fauna and flora.</p>

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    <p>Digital Cover Photography (DCP) upward-looking images were collected annually to capture vegetation cover at the TERN Karawatha Peri-Urban SuperSite. These images can be used to estimate Leaf area index (LAI), Crown Cover or Foliage Projective Cover (FPC). </p><p> The Karawatha Peri-Urban SuperSite was established in 2007 and decommissioned in 2018. The site was located in Eucalypt forest at Karawatha Forest. For additional site information, see https://deims.org/f15bc7aa-ab4a-443b-a935-dbad3e7101f4 . </p><p> Other images collected at the site include photopoints and ancilliary images of fauna and flora. </p>

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    <p>These datasets provide accurate actual evapotranspiration (AET) for Australia using the CMRSET algorithm. The CMRSET algorithm uses reflective remotely sensed indices to estimate AET from potential evapotranspiration (PET; calculated using daily gridded meteorological data generated by the Bureau of Meteorology). Blending high-resolution / low-frequency AET estimates (e.g., Landsat and Sentinel-2) with low-resolution / high-frequency AET estimates (e.g., MODIS and VIIRS) results in AET data that are high-resolution / high-frequency / continuous (no gaps due to cloud) and accurate. These are all ideal characteristics when calculating the water balance for a wetland, paddock, river reach, irrigation area, landscape or catchment. </p><p> Accurate AET information is important for irrigation, food security and environmental management. Like many other parts of the world, water availability in Australia is limited and AET is the largest consumptive component of the water balance. In Australia 70% of available water is used for crop and pasture irrigation and better monitoring will support improved water use efficiency in this sector, with any water savings available as environmental flows. Additionally, ground-water dependent ecosystems (GDE) occupy a small area yet are "biodiversity hotspots", and knowing their water needs allows for enhanced management of these critical areas in the landscape. </p><p> Details of the CMRSET algorithm and its independent validation are provided in “Guerschman, J.P., McVicar, T.R., Vleeshower, J. Chen, Y. and Van Niel, T.G. (2020) Operational spatially-explicit paddock-to-continental actual evapotranspiration estimation: Calibrating the CMRSET algorithm with reflective data from MODIS, VIIRS, Landsat and Sentinel-2 reproduces flux observations and catchment water balance observations across Australia. (In Preparation)</p>