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climatologyMeteorologyAtmosphere

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    This service provides access to ecosystem flux data from Whroo in Victoria. The site was classified as box woodland and is located approximately 45km south west of Shepparton.

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    This service provides access to ecosystem flux data from Adelaide River, Northern Territory. The vegetation is classified as Savanna dominated by Eucalyptus tectifica and Planchonia careya.

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    The Gingin flux station is located in coastal heath Banksia woodland on the Swan Coastal Plain 70km north of Perth, Western Australia: (elevation: 51m), and 2km south of the University of Western Australia International Gravity Wave Observatory. The site was established in June 2011 by CSIRO and is now managed by Edith Cowan University Centre for Ecosystem Management. The site is a natural woodland of high species diversity. The overstorey is dominated by Banksia spp. mainly B. menziesii, B. attenuata, and B. grandis with a height of around 7m and leaf area index of about 0.8. There are occasional stands of eucalypts and acacia that reach to 10m and have a denser foliage cover. There are many former wetlands dotted around the woodland, most of which were inundated all winter and some had permanent water 30 years ago. The watertable has now fallen below the base of these systems and they are disconnected and are no longer permanently wet. The fine sediments, sometimes diatomaceous, hold water and they have perched watertables each winter. There is a natural progression of species accompanying this process as they gradually become more dominated by more xeric species. The soils are mainly Podosol sands, with low moisture holding capacity. Field capacity typically about 8 to 10%, and in summer these generally hold less than 2% moisture. The watertable is at about 8.5 m below the surface, and a WA Dept of water long-term monitoring piezometer is near the base of the tower. The instrument mast is 14m tall, with the eddy covariance instruments mounted at 14.8m. Fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapour and heat are quantified with open-path eddy covariance instrumentation. Ancillary measurements include temperature, air humidity, wind speed and direction, precipitation, incoming and outgoing shortwave radiation, incoming and outgoing long wave radiation, incoming total and diffuse PAR and reflected PAR. Soil water content and temperature are measured at six soil depths. Surface soil heat fluxes are also measured. A COSMOS Cosmic ray soil moisture instrument is installed, along with a logged piezometer, and nested piezometers installed with short screens for groundwater profile sampling. To monitor the watertable gradient, piezometers will be installed 500 m esat and west of the tower.

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    This service provides access to ecosystem flux data from Arcturus monitoring station, near Emerald in Queensland. The site is between lightly forested tussock grasslands and crop lands.

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    This service provides access to ecosystem flux data from Cape Tribulation in Far North Queensland. The site is in lowland tropical rainforest at the Daintree Rainforest Observatory.

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    This service provides access to ecosystem flux data from Yanco in New South Wales. The site is comprised of sandy loams, scattered clays, red brown earths, transitional red brown earth, sands over clay and deep sands and is located in the western plains of the Murrumbidgee Catchment.

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    This service provides access to ecosystem flux data from Gingin in Western Australia. The site is is located in native Banksia woodland on the Swan Coastal Plain about 70km north of Perth.

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    Ecosystem flux data from the Warra Flux Tower, Tasmania.The flux tower is installed in a stand of tall, mixed-aged E. obliqua forest (77 and >250 years-old) with a rainforest understorey and a dense man-fern (Dicksonia antarctica) ground-layer, on a small flat of elevation 100 m adjacent to the Huon River.The climate of Warra is classified as temperate with a mild summer and no dry season. Mean annual precipitation is 1700 mm with a relatively uniform seasonal distribution. Summer temperatures peak in January (min. 8.4°C – max 19.2°C) with winter temperatures reaching their lowest in July (min 2.6°C – max 8.4°C).Eucalyptus obliqua forests dominate the vegetation below 650 m where they exist as fire-maintained communities. On fertile soils these forests attain mature heights in excess of 55m: the tallest E. obliqua within the LTER reaches a height of 90m. The understorey vegetation progresses from wet sclerophyll (dominated by Pomaderris apatala and Acacia dealbata) to rainforest (dominated by Nothofagus cunninghamii, Atherosperma moschatum, Eucryphia lucida and Phyllocladus aspleniifolius) with increasing time intervals between fire events.The site supports prodigous quantities of coarse woody debris as is characteristic of these fire-maintained eucalypt forests on fertile sites in southern Tasmania. The soil at the flux site is derived from Permian mudstone and has a gradational profile with a dark brown organic clayey silt topsoil overlying a yellow brown clay.The instruments are mounted at the top of an 80m tall guyed steel lattice tower. Supplementary measurements above the canopy include temperature, humidity, windspeed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation. An open-path gas analyser (EC150) was replaced by a closed-path gas analyser (EC155) at the end of Jan 2015.Soil moisture content is measured using Time Domain reflectometry, while soil heat fluxes and temperature are also measured.Micro-meteorology (CO2, H2O, energy fluxes), meteorology (temp, humidity, wind speed and direction, rainfall) taken from the Warra Flux Site from 2013 to late 2016. Data incomplete due to ongoing problems since changing the open-path IRGA to a closed path system (CPEC200) during 2015. Soil data (moisture, heat flux, temp) complete for time period.Data processed to L3 with OzFluxQC version 2.8.4

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    Ecosystem flux data from the Ti Tree East flux station, located on Pine Hill cattle station in the Northern Territory. The site was established in July 2012 and is managed by the University of Technology Sydney.Pine Hill Station is a functioning cattle station that has been in operation for longer than 50 years. However, the east side has not been stocked in over three years. The site is a mosaic of the primary semi-arid biomes of central Australia: grassy mulga woodland and Corymbia/Triodia savanna.The woodland is characterised by a mulga (Acacia aneura) canopy, which is 4.85 m tall on average. The soil is red sand overlying an 8 m deep water table. Elevation of the site is 553 m above sea level, and the terrain is flat.Mean annual precipitation at the nearby (30 km to the south) Bureau of Meteorology station is 305.9 mm but ranges between 100 mm in 2009 to 750 mm in 2010. Predominant wind directions are from the southeast and east.The instrument mast is 10 m tall. Fluxes of heat, water vapour and carbon are measured using the open-path eddy covariance technique at 9.81 m.Supplementary measurements above the canopy include temperature and humidity (9.81 m), windspeed and wind direction (8.28 m), downwelling and upwelling shortwave and longwave radiation (9.9 m).Precipitation is monitored in the savanna (2.5m). Supplementary measurements within and below the canopy include barometric pressure (2 m).Belowground soil measurements are made beneath Triodia, mulga and grassy understorey and include ground heat flux (0.08 m), soil temperature (0.02 m – 0.06 m) and soil moisture (0 – 0.1 m, 0.1 – 0.3 m, 0.6 – 0.8 m and 1.0 – 1.2 m).

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    Flux measurements from the Cow Bay site, Far North Queensland.The Cow Bay flux station was located in the Daintree forest at the Daintree Discovery Centre, Cow Bay, 100km north of Cairns in Far North Queensland. It was established in December 2008 and managed by James Cook University.The forest is classified as complex mesophyll vine forest, there are 94 species in the core 1Ha, and average tree height is 22m. Elevation of the site is 90m and mean annual precipitation is 3935mm. The Daintree Rainforest is one of the most biodiverse forests in Australia.The instruments are mounted on a walk-up tourist tower at 35m. Fluxes of heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide are measured using the open-path eddy flux technique. Supplementary measurements above the canopy include temperature, humidity, windspeed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation.The early years 2009 - 12 had several data gaps. Shadowing of the radiometric equipment continues to cause artifacts on the radiometers - these can be seen as reduction in downwelling radiation with solar inclination. We are currently working on a hardware solution.The site is part of the FNQ Rainforest SuperSite : associated with the Daintree node, which is part of the TERN Australian SuperSite Network (ASN). The site was co-funded by the Daintree Discovery Centre and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network. Past support was from the Department of Environment and Heritage - Marine and Tropical Sciences Research Facility Project 5ii.2. Climate Change: Scaling from trees to ecosystems.