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  • The Dry River flux station is located approximately 89km south of Katherine, Northern Territory. The site was established in 2008 and is managed by The University of Western Australia and Charles Darwin University.The flux tower site is classified as open forest savanna. The overstory is co-dominated by tree species E. tetrodonta, E. dichromophloia, C. terminalis, Sorghum intrans, S. plumosum, Themeda triandra and Chrysopogon fallax, with canopy height averaging 12.3m.Elevation of the site is close to 175m and mean annual precipitation from a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site measures 895.3mm.Maximum temperatures range from 29.1°C (in June) to 37.6°C (in July), while minimum temperatures range from 14.6°C (in July) to 24.8°C (in November). Maximum temperatures vary seasonally by 8.5°C and minimum by 10.2°C.The instrument mast is 15 meters tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements are taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation are measured above the canopy. Soil heat fluxes are measured and soil moisture content is gathered using time domain reflectometry.Ancillary measurements taken at the site include LAI, leaf-scale physiological properties (gas exchange, leaf isotope ratios, N and chlorophyll concentrations), vegetation optical properties and soil physical properties. Airborne based remote sensing (Lidar and hyperspectral measurements) was carried out across the transect in September 2008.

  • The Sturt Plains flux station is located approximately 280km north of Tennant Creek, Northern Territory. It was established in August 2008 and is managed by Monash University external and Charles Darwin University. The Sturt Plains OzFlux Site is located on a low lying plain dominated by Mitchell Grass (gen. Astrebla). Elevation of the site is close to 250m and mean annual precipitation at a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site is 640mm.Maximum temperatures range from 28.4°C (in June/ July) to 39.1°C (in December), while minimum temperatures range from 11.2°C (in July) to 24.4°C (in December).The instrument mast is 5 meters tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements are taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall and net radiation are measured. Soil heat fluxes are measured and soil moisture content is gathered using time domain reflectometry.Ancillary measurements taken at the site include LAI, leaf-scale physiological properties (gas exchange, leaf isotope ratios, N and chlorophyll concentrations), vegetation optical properties and soil physical properties. Airborne based remote sensing (Lidar and hyperspectral measurements) was carried out across the transect in September 2008.

  • Ecosystem flux data from the Adelaide River site, Northern Territory.The Adelaide River flux station was located approximately 10.5km south east of Bachelor, Northern Territory. The flux tower site was classified as Savanna dominated by Eucalyptus tectifica and Planchonia careya.Elevation of the site was close to 90m and mean annual precipitation at a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site is 1730mm. Maximum temperatures range from 31.4°C (in June) to 36.8°C (in October) while minimum temperatures range from 16.2°C (in July) to 25.1°C (in December). Maximum temperature vary seasonally by approximately 5.4°C and minimum temperatures vary by approximately 8.9°C.The instrument mast was 15 meters tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements were taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation were measured above the canopy. Soil heat fluxes are measured and soil moisture content was gathered using time domain reflectometry.The site was established in November 2007 and was managed by Monash University and Charles Darwin University until it was decommissioned in May 2009.

  • The Daly River Uncleared flux tower site is located in the Douglas River Daly River Esplanade Conservation area, approximately 60 km south west of Pine Creek, Northern Territory (GPS coordinates: -14.1592, 131.3881).The flux tower site is classified as a Woodland savanna. The overstory is co dominated by tree species E. tetrodonta, C. latifolia, Terminalia grandiflora, Sorghum sp. and Heteropogon triticeus. Average canopy height measures 16.4 m. Elevation of the site is close to 110m and mean annual precipitation at a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site is 1170mm.Maximum temperatures range from 37.5°C (in October) to 31.2°C (in June), while minimum temperatures range from 12.6°C (in July) to 23.8°C (in January). Maximum temperatures range seasonally by 6.3°C and minimum temperatures by 11.2°C.The instrument mast is 23 meters tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements are taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation are measured above the canopy.Ancillary measurements taken at the site include LAI, leaf-scale physiological properties (gas exchange, leaf isotope ratios, N and chlorophyll concentrations), vegetation optical properties and soil physical properties. Airborne based remote sensing (Lidar and hyperspectral measurements) was carried out across the transect in September 2008.

  • Data from Wallaby Creek flux tower, Victoria.The Wallaby Creek flux station is located in Kinglake National Park, Victoria, South Eastern Australia. The area is assigned the IUCN Category II (National Parks) of the United Nations’ list of National Parks and protected areas, which means that park is primarily managed for ecosystem conservation.The site is approximately 45km north east of Melbourne, lies at an elevation of approximately 720 metres, and is located on the southern edge of the Hume Plateau. The catchment area is dominated by Eucalyptus Regnans or Mountain Ash, the world’s tallest flowering plant (angiosperm). Trees can reach heights of more than 90 metres growing in areas with high rainfall and fertile soil. These trees are well distributed throughout Victoria’s Central Highlands including the Otway Ranges and Strzlecki Ranges; they are also found in Tasmania. The site contains a chronosequence of (20, 80 and 300) stand ages that were established during fires occurring over the last 300 years.The tower itself is located within an old growth stand with individual trees as old as 300 years. Mountain ash forests are confined to the cool mountain regions with elevations ranging from 460 - 1100m and average rainfalls of 1100-2000mm. The forest is classed as a tall, wet sclerophyll forest, and the dominant Mountain Ash trees have an average canopy height of 75m. Below the dominant canopy lies a temperate rainforest understorey consisting of Pomaderris aspera and Olearia argophylla species, which are 10-18 metres tall. The lower layers of vegetation are dominated by tree ferns (Cyathea australis and Dicksonia antartica) and extensive tracts of rosette and rhizonic ferns (Polystichum proliferum and Blechnum wattsii) as well as Acacia trees.The catchment area contains a portion of the Mt Disappointment range, the Divide and the headwaters of Wallaby Creek and Silver Creek, and much of the slopes are characterised as flat to moderate.The major soil type within the forest is krasnozemic soils, which are friable red/brown, with high amounts of organic matter in the upper 20 – 30cm. However, the composition of krasnozemic soils is not homogenous, but rather a variation with altitude can be observed; lower altitudes inhabit grey-yellow podsolised soils compared to higher altitudes of the Kinglake and Hume plateau where the soil composition is krasnozemic loams. The clay content of these soils increases with depth until at least 200 cm deep, where after a transition soils contain rock fragments.The station was established in August 2005 by Monash University, operated in collaboration with Charles Darwin University and University of Alaska Faribanks. The original tower was destroyed in February 2009 by bushfires. Before the bushfire, the main mast stood at 110m. In March 2010, a replacement tower was established and sat at a height of 5m. Data from the site has been recorded from May 2010 onwards. As the tower is relatively new, the post fire instrumentation is currently not as diverse when compared to the pre fire instrumentation.The climate of the study area is classified as a cool, temperate zone, with the highest temperatures occurring during the summer months of December – February (13.8 – 22.5°C), whilst the coolest temperatures are experienced in May and August (4.7 – 9.2°C). Average annual precipitation is 1209mm, with a maximum rainfall occurring in June (Ashton, 2000). The study site experiences foggy conditions after sunset during autumn and winter.

  • The Fogg Dam flux station was located approximately 6km east of Black Jungle, Northern Territory. It was established in February 2006 and decommissioned in September 2008. It was managed by Monash University and Charles Darwin University.The site was situated within a wetland that flooded seasonally. The principle vegetation was Oryza rufipogon, Pseudoraphis spinescens and Eleocharis dulcis. The elevation was approximately 4m, with a neighbouring Bureau of Meteorology station recording 1411mm mean annual precipitation.Maximum temperatures ranged from 31.3°C (in June and July) to 35.6°C (in October), while minimum temperatures ranged from 14.9°C (in July) to 23.9°C (in December and February). Maximum temperatures varied on a seasonal basis by approximately 4.3°C and minimum temperatures by 9.0°C.The instrument mast was 15m tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements are taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation were measured above the canopy. Soil heat fluxes were measured and soil moisture content was gathered using time domain reflectometry.Ancillary measurements taken at the site include LAI, leaf-scale physiological properties (gas exchange, leaf isotope ratios, N and chlorophyll concentrations), vegetation optical properties and soil physical properties. Airborne based remote sensing (Lidar and hyperspectral measurements) was carried out across the transect in September 2008.

  • The flux tower is located within the Yanco region of New South Wales, Australia. The site is located 37km south west of Narrandera, on the western plains of the Murrumbidgee Catchment. It was established in April 2012 and is managed by The University of Western Australia. This is a topographically flat area, primarily comprised of the following soil types: sandy loams, scattered clays, red brown earths, transitional red brown earth, sands over clay and deep sands. Stream valleys and layered soil and sedimentary materials are found across the landscape. The tower on site extends to 20m, however flux measurements are recorded from slightly lower than this. Mean annual precipitation from a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site measured 465 mm. Maximum temperatures ranged from 37.4°C (in January) to 16.6°C (in July), while minimum temperatures ranged from 29.0°C (in January) to 11.8°C (in July). Maximum temperatures varied on a seasonal basis by approximately 20.8°C and minimum temperatures by 17.2°C. The site is within a wider research area (60 x 60 km) that supports a network of OzNet stations, which have been in operation since late 2001 onwards.

  • The Daly River Pasture flux station was located 62km south west of Pine Creek, Northern Territory. It was established in November 2007 and managed by Monash University and Charles Darwin University until the site was destroyed by fire in September 2013. The flux tower site was identified as tropical pasture, and the vegetation was dominated by species Chamaecrista rotundifolia (Round-leaf cassia cv. Wynn), Digitaria milijiana (Jarra grass) and Aristida sp. standing at approximately 0.3m tall. The soil at the site was a mixture of red kandosol and deep sand. Elevation of the site was close to 70m and mean annual precipitation at a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site is 1250mm. Maximum temperatures ranged from 37.5°C (in October) to 31.2°C (in June), while minimum temperatures ranged from 12.6°C (in July) to 23.8°C (in January). Maximum temperatures varied on a seasonal basis between 6.3°C while minimum temperatures varied by 11.2°C. The instrument mast was 15 meters tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements were taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation were measured. Ancillary measurements taken at the site included LAI, leaf-scale physiological properties (gas exchange, leaf isotope ratios, N and chlorophyll concentrations), vegetation optical properties and soil physical properties. Airborne based remote sensing (Lidar and hyperspectral measurements) was carried out across the transect in September 2008.

  • The Litchfield flux station is located in the Litchfield National Park, 80km south of Darwin in the Northern Territory. It was established in 2015 and is managed by The University of Western Australia and Charles Darwin University.The station is located in the Savanna Super Site (SSS) a 5 km x 5 km block of relatively uniform open-forest savanna inside the park about 80 km south of Darwin. The SSS is a research and monitoring site representative of high rainfall, frequently burnt tropical savanna. Tropical savanna in Australia occupies 1.9 million square km across the north and given the extent of this biome, understanding biogeochemical cycles, impacts of fire on sequestration, vegetation and fauna is a national priority.In the NT, savanna ecosystems are largely intact in terms of tree cover, with only modest levels of land use change. Despite this, there is evidence of a loss of biodiversity, most likely due to shifts in fire regimes and a loss of patchiness in the landscape. Approximately 40% of the savanna burn every year and understanding fire impacts on fauna and flora is essential for effective land management.

  • The Howard Springs flux station is located in the Black Jungle Conservation Reserve in the Northern Territory south east of Darwin.The flux tower site is classified as an open woodland savanna. The overstory is co-dominated by tree species Eucalyptus miniata and Eucalyptus tentrodonata, and average tree height is 14–16m.Elevation of the site is close to 64m and mean annual precipitation is 1750mm. Maximum temperatures range from 30.4°C (in July) to 33.2°C (in November), while minimum temperatures range from 19.3°C (in July) to 25.4°C (in November). Therefore, the maximum and minimum range varies from 7°C (wet season) to 11°C (dry season).The instrument mast is 23m tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements are taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation are measured above the canopy.Soil heat fluxes are measured and soil moisture content is gathered using time domain reflectometry.