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    The physical drivers of ecosystem formation – macroclimate, lithology and landform – along with vegetation structural formations are key determinants of current ecosystem type. Each combination of these ecosystem drivers – each ‘ecological facet’ – provides a unique set of opportunities and challenges for life. <br> Management and conservation should seek to understand and take in to account these drivers of ecosystem formation. By understanding the unique combinations of these drivers management strategies can plan for their full range of variation, and conservation efforts can ensure that unique ecosystems are not lost. Unfortunately, there is currently no Australia-wide standardized map of ecological facets at management-appropriate scales. <br> By understanding the magnitude and distribution of unique combinations of these drivers, management strategies can plan for their full range of variation, and conservation efforts can ensure that unique ecosystems are not lost. Additionally, by improving our understanding of the past and present conditions that have given rise to current ecological facets this dataset could facilitate future predictive environmental modelling. Finally, this data could assisting biodiversity conservation, climate change impact studies and mitigation, ecosystem services assessment, and development planning <br> Further information about the dataset can be found at <a href="https://ternaus.atlassian.net/wiki/spaces/TERNSup/pages/2276130817/GEOSS+Ecosystem+Map">GEOSS Ecosystem Map,TERN Knowledge Base </a> .

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    The MODIS Land Condition Index (LCI) is an index of total vegetation cover (green and non-photosynthetic vegetation ), and so is also an index of soil exposure. The LCI is a normalised difference index based on MODIS bands in the mid-infrared portion of the spectrum. The index is produced from 500-m MODIS nadir BRDF adjusted reflectance (NBAR) data. As with all products derived from passive remote sensing imagery, this product represents the world as seen from above. Therefore, the cover recorded by this product represent what would be observed from a birds-eye-view. Therefore, dense canopy may prevent observation of significant soil exposure.

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    FosSahul is the first database compiling the ages of nonhuman vertebrate fossils from the Middle Pleistocene to the present in the Sahul region. It includes comprehensive metadata with ratings of reliability allocated to each fossil age. Because ecological and evolutionary phenomena are time-dependent, the entire range of archaeological and palaeontological research disciplines benefit from the availability of this data.

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    This dataset consists of images of fauna, flora, fungi or general scenery or events captured at the site on an ad-hoc basis and may provide the researcher with information regarding the species that occupy, frequent or traverse this site.<br /> <br /> The Calperum Mallee SuperSite was established in 2011 and is located on Calperum Station with research plots located in mallee woodland (burnt in 2014), Callitris woodland and a river floodplain (recovering from extensive grazing), consisting of black box, river red gum and lignum. The core 1 ha plot is located in mallee woodland. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/calperum-mallee-supersite/ . <br /> Other images collected at the site include digital cover photography, phenocam time-lapse images taken from fixed under and overstorey cameras, panoramic landscape and photopoint images. <br /><br /> <iframe src="https://maps.google.com/maps?layer=c&amp;panoid=VNc5-dZcKkoAAAGuqlmVHw&amp;ie=UTF8&amp;source=embed&amp;output=svembed&amp;cbp=13%2C208.3252%2C%2C0%2C0" title="Photosphere view of the mallee at Calperum SuperSite (photo J. Armston 2014)" style="height:248px;width:462px;"></iframe> <br />Photosphere view of the mallee at Calperum SuperSite (photo J. Armston 2014)<br />

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    The qualities of these data include: (i) sound experimental design to detect a change between confounding factors, (ii) large sample size, (iii) microchipped animals, (iv) validated heamatological processing on the wild Australian lizard Tiliqua rugosa involving a collaboration between wildlife ecologists and veterinary scientists. Its reuse potential may involve a comparative analysis of body size, haematological parameters with other long-lived, medium-sized lizards, ectoparasite studies (Aponomma hydrosauri, Amblyomma libatum) for different host populations, and background justification for ecotoxicological (pesticide) studies in farmland. Using a using a multivariate, one-way nested Type I PERMANCOVA (analysis of covariance) design, body size, blood samples and ectoparasite presence was collected on a total of 119 animals from two different populations in southern Australia. One population was from an intensively managed cropping environment and one was from an adjacent a less intensively managed grazing environment. This study took place in extensive rangelands and the fragmented landscapes of the South Australian Murray Mallee cereal cropland in southern Australia. Adult and juvenile T. rugosa were captured for sampling at one rangeland (baseline) site and three severely modified (severe) landscape-scaled sites (LS1, LS2, LS3) over a large area (68 km × 84 km or 571,200 ha) across the croplands. Two animal sampling designs were used to collect data on physiological health (Design 1: Baseline vs Severe and Design 2 - Severe only). Data collected: Record No., Animal No., Treatment, Habitat Type, Landscape No., Connectivity Class, Age Class, Linear Body Size Index (LBSI), Heterophil (H) Field of View, Heterophil per microlitre, Total White Blood Cell Count, Absolute Heterophil Count, % Heterophil Count, Absolute Lymphocyte (L) Count, % Lymphocytes, H:L Ratio (Absolute), H:L Ratio (%), Absolute Monocytes, % Monocytes , Absolute Other Granulocytes , % Other Granulocytes, % Polychromasia, Snout-Vent Length (mm), Total No. Ectoparasites per Animal.

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    This data release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in semi-arid eucalypt woodland using eddy covariance techniques. It been processed using PyFluxPro (v3.3.0) as described in Isaac et al. (2017), <a href="https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017">https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017</a>. PyFluxPro takes data recorded at the flux tower and process this data to a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER). For more information about the processing levels, see <a href="https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki">https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki</a>. <br /> <br /> The Calperum Chowilla site was established in July 2010 and is managed by the University of Adelaide (UA), coordinated by Prof Wayne Meyer and Prof David Chittleborough of the Landscape Futures Program as part of the Environment Institute. This is a former sheep grazing property that has been destocked and is being managed as a conservation area in this type of ecosystem. The landscape is flat with a series of low east–west sand dunes. The dunes are remnants of a previous dry era and are mostly now stabilised by mallee (multi-stemmed Eucalypt trees) and various shrubs. It is a semi-arid environment fringing the River Murray floodplains of the Riverland.<br />For additional site information, see http://www.landscapescience.org/. <br /><br />

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    <p> Digital Cover Photography (DCP) upward-looking images are collected at least twice per year to capture vegetation cover at Calperum SuperSite. These images can be used to estimate Leaf area index (LAI), Crown Cover or Foliage Projective Cover (FPC). The images are captured at the times of estimated maximum and minimum LAI.</p> <p> The Calperum Mallee SuperSite was established in 2011 and is located on Calperum Station with research plots located in mallee woodland (burnt in 2014), Callitris woodland and a river floodplain (recovering from extensive grazing), consisting of black box, river red gum and lignum. The core 1 ha plot is located in mallee woodland. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/calperum-mallee-supersite/ .</p> <p> Other images collected at the site include photopoints, phenocam time-lapse images taken from fixed under and overstorey cameras, panoramic landscape and ancillary images of fauna and flora. </p>

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    High quality digital images are captured using a digital SLR camera at the plots (core 1 hectare vegetation plot, Callitris and Floodplain) at the TERN Calperum Mallee SuperSite using the panoramic photopoint method. The panoramic photopoint method may be the most informative in open forests/woodlands and rangelands. Three photopoints are established configured in an equilateral triangle (2.5m sides) with the centre marked with a star dropper and the location recorded with DGPS. At each photopoint take photographic sequences in a 360° panorama, with up to 40 photographs with a minimum 50% overlap between consecutive photographs. For more information about the method, see <a href= 'http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/2.1.4287.3607'>White, el al. (2012) AusPlots Rangelands Survey Protocols Manual Version 1.2.9.</a> <br> The Calperum Mallee SuperSite was established in 2011 and is located on Calperum Station with research plots located in mallee woodland (burnt in 2014), Callitris woodland and a river floodplain (recovering from extensive grazing), consisting of black box, river red gum and lignum. The core 1 ha plot is located in mallee woodland. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/calperum-mallee-supersite/ .</p> <br /> Other images collected at the site include digital cover photography, phenocam time-lapse images taken from fixed under and overstorey cameras, five-photopoint images and ancillary images of fauna and flora.

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    RSMA measures change in the relative contributions of photosynthetic vegetation (PV, or GV green vegetation), non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) and soil reflectance compared to a baseline date. These spectral changes correspond to changes in fractional cover relative to the baseline date. Full details on the RSMA method are presented in Okin (2007). One of the key advantages of the RSMA, its insensitivity to changes in soil spectra, is a result of the fact that it does not require us to know the soil reflectance profile for a region. This strength is also the cause of a major weakness in RSMA. Since the measure is relative to a baseline date, and the absolute cover levels for every pixel are unknown at the baseline, the RSMA does not convey the absolute cover levels at any other point in time. However, if the absolute cover levels are known at any point in time, it is theoretically possible to convert the RSMA to absolute relative spectral mixture analysis (ARSMA).<br> As with all products derived from passive remote sensing imagery, this product represents the world as seen from above. Therefore, the cover recorded by this product represent what would be observed from a bird's-eye-view. Therefore, dense canopy may prevent observation of significant soil exposure.

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    This dataset consists of measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in a semi-arid mallee ecosystem north of the River Murray near Chowilla using eddy covariance techniques. <br /> <br /> The Calperum Chowilla site was established in July 2010 and is managed by the University of Adelaide (UA), coordinated by Prof Wayne Meyer and Prof David Chittleborough of the Landscape Futures Program as part of the Environment Institute. This is a former sheep grazing property that has been destocked and is being managed as a conservation area in this type of ecosystem. The landscape is flat with a series of low east–west sand dunes. The dunes are remnants of a previous dry era and are mostly now stabilised by mallee (multi-stemmed Eucalypt trees) and various shrubs. It is a semi-arid environment fringing the River Murray floodplains of the Riverland.<br />For additional site information, see http://www.landscapescience.org/. <br /><br /> This data is also available at http://data.ozflux.org.au .