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    <p>This dataset contains audio files for TERN Fletcherview Tropical Rangeland SuperSite. Long-term recordings of the environment can be used to identify sound sources of interest, characterise the soundscape, aid in the assessment of fauna biodiversity, monitor temporal trends and track environmental changes.</p> <p>Fletcherview Tropical Rangeland SuperSite was established in 2021 at James Cook University’s Fletcherview Research Station, a fully operational outback cattle station located 50&nbsp;km west of Townsville, Queensland. The site is used for cattle grazing and is characterised by tall open savanna. The vegetation is dominated by native grasses such as blackspear and kangaroo grasses, as well as introduced species like buffel grass, signal grass and leucaena. Fletcherview typically experiences a dry and wet season, with most rainfall occurring between January and April.</p> <p>In 2020 four acoustic recorders were set up to collect audio data continuously as part of the Australian Acoustic Observatory (A2O) project. Two recorders were placed in relatively wet habitats and two in relatively dry habitats.</p> <p>Data are made available through the data link.</p>

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    This dataset consists of images of fauna, flora, fungi or general scenery or events captured at the site on an ad-hoc basis and may provide the researcher with information regarding the species that occupy, frequent or traverse this site.<br /> <br /> The 25 hectare site was established in 2009 and lies on the Atherton Tablelands in the wet tropical rainforests of Australia at 680-740 m elevation. It is situated in Danbulla National Park within the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. The forest is classified as Regional Ecosystem (RE) 7.3.36a, complex mesophyll vine forest (Queensland Government 2006). The climate is seasonal with approximately 60% of rain falling between January and March and the landform is moderately inclined with a low relief. There are 208 species in the site, and average canopy height is 28 m, ranging from 23 to 44 m. All stems ≥ 10 cm diameter are measured, tagged and mapped. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/robson-creek-rainforest-supersite/ . <br /><br /> Other bioimages collected at the site include digital hemispherical photography, phenocam images taken from fixed under and overstorey cameras and ancillary images of fauna and flora.<br /><br /> <iframe src="https://www.google.com/maps/embed?pb=!4v1529548392873!6m8!1m7!1sCAoSLEFGMVFpcE51SVhqcTZFVmh4dEQ4QlowbkxYZGVMT1J3QjlEVlJZRGZiTWFV!2m2!1d-17.119256!2d145.631933!3f60.05!4f-9.040000000000006!5f0.41007199324273763" title="Photosphere view in the 25 ha plot at Robson Creek Rainforest SuperSite (photo M. Karan 2016)" style="height:248px;width:462px;"></iframe> <br />Photosphere view in the 25 ha plot at Robson Creek Rainforest SuperSite (photo M. Karan 2016)<br />

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    This data release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in semi-arid eucalypt woodland using eddy covariance techniques. It been processed using PyFluxPro (v3.4.7) as described in Isaac et al. (2017), <a href="https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017">https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017</a>. PyFluxPro takes data recorded at the flux tower and process this data to a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER). For more information about the processing levels, see <a href="https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki">https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki</a>.<br /> <br />The Alice Springs Mulga flux station is located on Pine Hill cattle station, near Alice Springs in the Northern Territory. The woodland is characterized by the Acacia aneura canopy, which is 6.5m tall on average. Elevation of the site is 606m above sea level, and the terrain is flat. Mean annual precipitation at the nearby (45km distant) Bureau of Meteorology station is 305.9mm but ranges between 100mm in 2009 to 750mm in 2010. Predominant wind directions are from the southeast and east.The extent of the woodland is 11km to the east of the flux station and 16km to the south. The soil is red sandy clay (50:50 sand:clay) overlying a 49m deep water table. Pine Hill Station is a functioning cattle station that has been in operation for longer than 50 years.The instrument mast is 13.7m tall. Fluxes of heat, water vapour and carbon are measured using the open-path eddy covariance technique at 11.6m. Supplementary measurements above the canopy include temperature and humidity (11.6m), windspeed and wind direction (9.25m), downwelling and upwelling shortwave and longwave radiation (12.2m). Precipitation is monitored in a canopy gap (2.5m). Supplementary measurements within and below the canopy include barometric pressure (1m), wind speed (2m, 4.25m and 6.5m), and temperature and humidity (2m, 4.25m and 6m). Below ground soil measurements are made in bare soil, mulga, and understory habitats and include ground heat flux (0.08m), soil temperature (0.02m – 0.06m) and soil moisture (0 – 0.1m, 0.1 – 0.3m, 0.6 – 0.8m and 1.0 – 1.2m). Ancillary measurements include soil water and carbon fluxes, leaf water potential, leaf gas exchange, stem basal area, stem growth, litter production, leaf area index, stem hydraulic conductance, and carbon and water stable isotope ratios. The site was established in September 2010 in conjunction with the Woodforde River NGCRT Superscience Site and is managed by the University of Technology Sydney.<br />For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/alice-mulga-supersite/ <br /><br />

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    This data contains ant abundance and incidence collected in the core 1 ha plot within the Daintree Rainforest, Cape Tribulation site.

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    This data contains a list of all vascular plants surveyed in the Alice Mulga site in 2012.

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    <p>This dataset contains audio files for Alice Mulga SuperSite. Alice Mulga SuperSite was established in 2010 at Pine Hill Cattle Station with research plots located in low open woodland mulga (<em>Acacia aneura</em>) and non-acacia, hummock grassland, and river red gum forest. The core 1 ha plot is located in a dense mulga woodland (cover 70–80%). For additional site information, see <a href="https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/alice-mulga-supersite">Alice Mulga SuperSite</a></p> <p>In 2013 an acoustic recorder was set up in mulga woodland to collect audio data for a total of 12 hours per day, split between six hours around dawn and six hours around dusk. The recording schedule aimed at capturing morning and evening bird choruses while minimizing memory and battery requirements. A long-term spectrogram has been generated for each audio file to aid in data exploration. The sensor also recorded temperature, minimum- maximum- and mean-sound pressure levels.</p> <p>Acoustic indices and false colour spectrograms were created for the recordings. Acoustic indices are summaries of the distribution of the acoustic energy in a recording. They are particularly useful for the analysis of long-term recordings of the environment and can be used to identify sound sources of interest, characterise the soundscape, aid in the assessment of fauna biodiversity, monitor temporal trends and track environmental changes. False colour spectrograms are visual representation of individual acoustic indices or combination of multiple indices. They can highlight the presence of specific sound sources, e.g. birds, insects or weather events, providing a tool for navigating long-term recordings.</p> <p>Data are made available through the data link. For downloading large amount of data, please follow these instructions <a href="https://ternaus.atlassian.net/wiki/spaces/TERNSup/pages/2530148353/How+to+download+TERN+s+acoustic+data+in+bulk">How to download TERN's acoustic data in bulk</a></p>

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    This data contains a list of all vascular plants surveyed in the Daintree Rainforest, Cape Tribulation site in 2014.

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    This data contains ant abundance and incidence collected in the core 1 ha plot within the Alice Mulga site.

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    This data contains a once-off general structural description according to the National Vegetation Information System (NVIS) level 5 for the core 1 hectare plot in the Daintree Rainforest, Cape Tribulation site in 2014. Dominant growth form, cover, height and species (up to 5 species in order of dominance) for up to 3 sub-stratum per traditional strata (Ground, Mid and Upper).

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    This data release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in semi-arid eucalypt woodland using eddy covariance techniques. It been processed using PyFluxPro (v3.3.3) as described in Isaac et al. (2017), <a href="https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017">https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017</a>. PyFluxPro takes data recorded at the flux tower and process this data to a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER). For more information about the processing levels, see <a href="https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki">https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki</a>.<br /> <br />The Cape Tribulation flux station was located in the land that is adjacent to the Daintree National Park which is part of the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area (WTWHA). The site is flanked to the west by coastal ranges rising to more than 1400m and to the east by the Coral Sea. The red clay loam podzolic soils are of metamorphic origin and have good drainage characteristics. The metamorphic rocks grade into granite boulders along Thompson Creek which runs along the northern boundary of the site. The crane site itself is gently sloping but the fetch area makes the site one of very complex terrain. The forest is classed as complex mesophyll vine forest (type 1a) and has an average canopy height of 25m. The dominant canopy trees belong to the Apocynaceae, Arecaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lauraceae, Meliaceae, Myristicaceae and Myrtaceae families. The forest is continuous for several kilometres around the crane except for an area 300m due east of the crane, which is regrowth forest. Annual average rainfall at the site is around 5180mm and is strongly seasonal, with 66% falling between January and April (wet season). Mean daily temperature ranges from 26.6°C in February to 21.2°C in July. <br> Tropical cyclones are a frequent occurrence in Far North Queensland. These severe tropical storm systems are natural phenomena which play a major role in determining the ecology of Queensland's tropical lowland rainforests. In March 1999 Tropical Cyclone Rona (Category 3) passed over the Cape Tribulation area causing widespread damage (gusts >170km/h). At the site several large trees fell, nearly all of the remaining trees were stripped of leaves and the lianas towers were torn to ground level. <br> The flux station was mounted at the 45m level on the tower of the Australian Canopy Crane external link. The canopy crane is a Liebherr 91 EC, freestanding construction tower crane. The crane is 48.5 metres tall with a radius of 55 metres enabling access to 1 hectare of rainforest. Fluxes of heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide were measured using the open-path eddy covariance technique. Supplementary measurements above the canopy included temperature, humidity, rainfall, total solar; these measurements have continued post the flux system decommissioning. Heat flux, soil temperature and water content (time domain reflectometry) were measured in proximity to the flux station; these measurements have continued post the flux system decommissioning. Detailed biometric measurements are made at the crane site and all trees have regular (5 yearly) dbh measurements and canopy mapping carried out. Monitoring bores (3) are located on site. Leaf litter measurements are carried out on a monthly basis. <br> For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/daintree-rainforest-supersite/ .<br /><br />