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Soil sciences

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    <p>Soil is a huge carbon (C) reservoir, but where and how much extra C can be stored is unknown. Here, using 5089 observations, we estimated that the uppermost 30&nbsp;cm of Australian soil holds 13&nbsp;Gt (10–18&nbsp;Gt) of mineral-associated organic carbon (MAOC). Using a frontier line analyses, described in Viscarra Rossel et al. (2023), we estimated the maximum amounts of MAOC that Australian soils could store in their current environments, and calculated the MAOC deficit, or C sequestration potential. We propagated the uncertainties from the frontier fitting and mapped the estimates of these values over Australia using machine learning and kriging with external drift (KED). The maps show regions where the soil is more in MAOC deficit and has greater sequestration potential. The modelling shows that the variation over the whole continent is determined mainly by climate, linked to vegetation, and soil mineralogy. We find that the MAOC deficit in Australian soil is 40&nbsp;Gt (25–60&nbsp;Gt). The deficit in the vast rangelands is 20.84&nbsp;Gt (13.97–29.70&nbsp;Gt) and the deficit in cropping soil is 1.63&nbsp;Gt (1.12–2.32&nbsp;Gt). Our findings suggest that the C sequestration potential of Australian soil is limited by climate.

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    This dataset contains soil microbial and genomic analysis files of 9 soil samples from each of three plots at Fletcherview, Northern Queensland (NQ) processed by the <a href='https://agrf.org/'>Australian Genome Research Facility Ltd (AGRF) </a>. The files are available as compressed FastQ formatted sequence files.<br> For the nine Far North Queensland (FNQ) new plots (3 plots in Fletcherview and six plots at Wambiana), soil sampling additional to that done as component of plot installation by TERN have been undertaken. This is aligned with potential future exploratory work on soil eDNA proposed for WA. The protocol is a modified version of the <a href="https://doi.org/10.1186/s13742-016-0126-5">BASE sampling protocol</a>, combined with soil sampling as per <a href="https://www.tern.org.au/wp-content/uploads/TERN-Rangelands-Survey-Protocols-Manual_web.pdf">White et al. (2012)</a>. <br> DNA extracted from the soil samples and Metagenomics 10Gbp (giga base pairs) bundle as per AGRF protocol.

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    The soil in terrestrial and blue carbon ecosystems (BCE; mangroves, tidal marshes, seagrasses) is a significant carbon (C) sink. National assessments of C inventories are needed to protect them and aid nature-based strategies to sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide. We harmonised measurements from Australia's terrestrial and BCE and, using consistent multi-scale spatial machine learning, unravelled the drivers of soil organic carbon (SOC) variation and digitally mapped their stocks. The modelling shows that climate and vegetation are continentally the primary drivers of SOC variation. But the underlying regional drivers are ecosystem type, terrain, clay content, mineralogy, and nutrients. The digital soil maps indicate that in the 0-30&nbsp;cm soil layer, terrestrial ecosystems hold 27.6&nbsp;Gt (19.6-39.0&nbsp;Gt), and BCE 0.35&nbsp;Gt (0.20-0.62&nbsp;Gt). Tall open eucalypt and mangrove forests have the largest mean SOC per unit area. Eucalypt woodlands and hummock grassland, which occupy vast areas, store the largest total SOC stock. These ecosystems constitute important regions for conservation, emissions avoidance, and preservation because they also provide additional co-benefits.

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    This data contains soil physico-chemical characteristics collected at the Alice Mulga site in 2013.

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    The Soil Moisture Integration and Prediction System (SMIPS) produces national extent daily estimates of volumetric soil moisture at a resolution of approximately 1km or 0.01 decimal degrees. SMIPS also generates an index of between 0-1 which approximates how full the 90cm metre soil moisture store is at a particular location and time. The SMIPS model itself consists of two linked soil moisture stores, a shallow quick responding 10cm upper store and a deeper, slower responding 80cm store. SMIPS is parameterised using physical properties from the <a href ='https://www.clw.csiro.au/aclep/soilandlandscapegrid/'>Soil and Landscape Grid of Australia </a>and takes a data model fusion approach for model forcing. Version 1.0 of the SMIPS model uses precipitation and potential evapotranspiration data from the Bureau of Meteorology’s <a href="http://www.bom.gov.au/water/landscape/assets/static/publications/AWRALv6_Model_Description_Report.pdf">AWRA Model</a>. In addition to version 1.0 of the model, an experimental version of the model is available for user testing. This version of the model uses precipitation data supplied by an experimental CSIRO daily rainfall surface generated using spatial data from the NASA Global Precipitation Mission as a base and enhanced using rainfall observations from the Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) rainfall gauge network, and various landscape covariates, processed using a machine learning approach. <br> To help increase model accuracy, the internal SMIPS model states are adjusted or ‘bumped’ by daily observational data from the European Space Agency’s Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission.

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    This is Version 2 of the Australian Soil Organic Carbon product of the Soil and Landscape Grid of Australia.<br /><br /> The map gives a modelled estimate of the spatial distribution of total organic carbon in soils across Australia.<br /><br /> It supersedes the Release 1 product that can be found at <a href="https://doi.org/10.4225/08/547523BB0801A">https://doi.org/10.4225/08/547523BB0801A</a><br /><br /> <p>The Soil and Landscape Grid of Australia has produced a range of digital soil attribute products. Each product contains six digital soil attribute maps, and their upper and lower confidence limits, representing the soil attribute at six depths: 0-5&nbsp;cm, 5-15&nbsp;cm, 15-30&nbsp;cm, 30-60&nbsp;cm, 60-100&nbsp;cm and 100-200&nbsp;cm. These depths are consistent with the specifications of the GlobalSoilMap.net project - <a href="https://esoil.io/TERNLandscapes/Public/Pages/SLGA/Resources/GlobalSoilMap_specifications_december_2015_2.pdf">GlobalSoilMaps</a>. The digital soil attribute maps are in raster format at a resolution of 3 arc sec (~90 x 90&nbsp;m pixels).</p> Detailed information about the Soil and Landscape Grid of Australia can be found at - <a href="https://esoil.io/TERNLandscapes/Public/Pages/SLGA/index.html">SLGA</a><br /><br /> <ul style="list-style-type: disc;"><li>Attribute Definition: Mass fraction of carbon by weight in the < 2&nbsp;mm soil material as determined by dry combustion at 900 Celsius Units: %;</li> <li>Period (temporal coverage; approximately): 1970-2021;</li> <li>Spatial resolution: 3 arc seconds (approximately 90&nbsp;m);</li> <li>Total number of gridded maps for this attribute: 18;</li> <li>Number of pixels with coverage per layer: 2007M (49200 * 40800);</li> <li>Target data standard: GlobalSoilMap specifications;</li> <li>Format: Cloud Optimised GeoTIFF</li></ul>

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    This is Version 1 of the Soil Bacteria and Fungi Beta Diversity product of the Soil and Landscape Grid of Australia.<br></br> The Soil and Landscape Grid of Australia has produced a range of digital soil attribute products. These products provide estimates of the Beta Diversity of soil fungi and bacteria. The digital soil attribute maps are in raster format at a resolution of 3 arc sec (~90 x 90&nbsp;m pixels).<br></br> These maps are generated using Digital Soil Mapping (DSM) methods. Detailed information about the Australian DSM an be found at <a href="https://aussoilsdsm.esoil.io/home">AusSoilsDSM</a><br /><br /> <ul style="list-style-type: disc;"><li>Attribute Definition: Soil Bacteria and Fungi Beta Diversity (Units: NA);</li> <li>Period (temporal coverage; approximately): 1950-2022;</li> <li>Spatial resolution: 3 arc seconds (approximately 90&nbsp;m);</li> <li>Total number of gridded maps for this attribute: 6;</li> </li>Number of pixels with coverage per layer: 2007M (49200 * 40800);</li> <li>Total size before compression: about 8GB;</li> <li>Total size after compression: about 4GB;</li> <li>Format: Cloud Optimised GeoTIFF.</li></ul>

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    This is Version 1 of the Soil Organic Carbon Fractions product of the Soil and Landscape Grid of Australia.<br></br> <p>The Soil and Landscape Grid of Australia has produced a range of digital soil attribute products. This product contains six digital soil attribute maps for each of three depth intervals, 0-5&nbsp;cm, 5-15&nbsp;cm, 15-30&nbsp;cm. These depths are consistent with the specifications of the GlobalSoilMap.net project - <a href="https://esoil.io/TERNLandscapes/Public/Pages/SLGA/Resources/GlobalSoilMap_specifications_december_2015_2.pdf">GlobalSoilMaps</a>. The digital soil attribute maps are in raster format at a resolution of 3 arc sec (~90 x 90&nbsp;m pixels).</p> <p>These maps are generated using Digital Soil Mapping methods.</p> <ul style="list-style-type: disc;"><li>Attribute Definition: Soil Organic Carbon Fractions : mineral-associated organic carbon (MAOC), particulate organic carbon (POC) and pyrogenic organic carbon (PyOC) (Units: Various);</li> <li>Period (temporal coverage; approximately): 1950-2022;</li> <li>Spatial resolution: 3 arc seconds (approximately 90&nbsp;m);</li> <li>Total number of gridded maps for this attribute: 18;</li> <li>Number of pixels with coverage per layer: 2007M (49200 * 40800);</li> <li>Total size before compression: about 8GB;</li> <li>Total size after compression: about 4GB;</li> <li>Format: Cloud Optimised GeoTIFF.</li>

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    This is Version 2 of the Australian Available Volumetric Water Capacity (AWC) product of the Soil and Landscape Grid of Australia.<br></br> The map gives a modelled estimate of the spatial distribution of AWC soil hydraulic property in soils across Australia.<br></br> <p>The Soil and Landscape Grid of Australia has produced a range of digital soil attribute products. Each product contains six digital soil attribute maps, and their upper and lower confidence limits, representing the soil attribute at six depths: 0-5&nbsp;cm, 5-15&nbsp;cm, 15-30&nbsp;cm, 30-60&nbsp;cm, 60-100&nbsp;cm and 100-200&nbsp;cm. These depths are consistent with the specifications of the GlobalSoilMap.net project - <a href="https://esoil.io/TERNLandscapes/Public/Pages/SLGA/Resources/GlobalSoilMap_specifications_december_2015_2.pdf">GlobalSoilMaps</a>. The digital soil attribute maps are in raster format at a resolution of 3 arc sec (~90 x 90&nbsp;m pixels).<br> Detailed information about the Soil and Landscape Grid of Australia can be found at - <a href="https://esoil.io/TERNLandscapes/Public/Pages/SLGA/index.html">SLGA</a><br /><br /> <ul style="list-style-type: disc;"><li>Attribute Definition: Available Volumetric Water Capacity (Units: percent);</li> <li>Period (temporal coverage; approximately): 1950-2021;</li> <li>Spatial resolution: 3 arc seconds (approx. 90m);</li> <li>Total number of gridded maps for this attribute: 18;</li> <li>Number of pixels with coverage per layer: 2007M (49200 * 40800);</li> <li>Target data standard: GlobalSoilMap specifications;</li> <li>Format: Cloud Optimised GeoTIFF</li></ul>

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    This is Version 1 of the Australian Soil Cation Exchange Capacity product of the Soil and Landscape Grid of Australia.<br></br> The map gives a modelled estimate of the spatial distribution of cation exchange capacity in soils across Australia.<br></br> <p>The Soil and Landscape Grid of Australia has produced a range of digital soil attribute products. Each product contains six digital soil attribute maps, and their upper and lower confidence limits, representing the soil attribute at six depths: 0-5&nbsp;cm, 5-15&nbsp;cm, 15-30&nbsp;cm, 30-60&nbsp;cm, 60-100&nbsp;cm and 100-200&nbsp;cm. These depths are consistent with the specifications of the GlobalSoilMap.net project - <a href="https://esoil.io/TERNLandscapes/Public/Pages/SLGA/Resources/GlobalSoilMap_specifications_december_2015_2.pdf">GlobalSoilMaps</a>. The digital soil attribute maps are in raster format at a resolution of 3 arc sec (~90 x 90&nbsp;m pixels).</p> Detailed information about the Soil and Landscape Grid of Australia can be found at - <a href="https://esoil.io/TERNLandscapes/Public/Pages/SLGA/index.html">SLGA</a><br /><br /> <ul style="list-style-type: disc;"><li>Attribute Definition: Cation Exchange Capacity (Units: meq/100g);</li> <li>Period (temporal coverage; approximately): 1970-2022;</li> <li>Spatial resolution: 3 arc seconds (approx 90&nbsp;m);</li> <li>Total number of gridded maps for this attribute: 18;</li> <li>Number of pixels with coverage per layer: 2007M (49200 * 40800);</li> <li>Target data standard: GlobalSoilMap specifications;</li> <li>Format: Cloud Optimised GeoTIFF.</li>