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    The Sentinel-2 seasonal fractional ground cover product shows the proportion of bare ground, green and non-green ground cover and is derived directly from the Sentinel-2 seasonal fractional cover product, also produced by Queensland's Remote Sensing Centre. The seasonal fractional cover product is a spatially explicit raster product, which predicts vegetation cover at medium resolution (10&nbsp;m per-pixel) for each 3-month calendar season. However, the seasonal fractional cover product does not distinguish tree and mid-level woody foliage and branch cover from green and dry ground cover. As a result, in areas with even minimal tree cover (>15%), estimates of ground cover become uncertain. With the development of the fractional cover time-series, it has become possible to derive an estimate of ‘persistent green’ based on time-series analysis. The persistent green vegetation product provides an estimate of the vertically-projected green-vegetation fraction where vegetation is deemed to persist over time. These areas are nominally woody vegetation. This separation of the 'persistent green' from the fractional cover product, allows for the adjustment of the underlying spectral signature of the fractional cover image and the creation of a resulting 'true' ground cover estimate for each season. The estimates of cover are restricted to areas of <60% woody vegetation. Currently, the persistent green product has only been produced at 30&nbsp;m pixel resolution based on Landsat imagery, resulting in this Sentinel-2 seasonal ground cover product having a medium 30&nbsp;m pixel resolution also. This is an experimental product which has not been fully validated. This product is similar to the <a href="https://portal.tern.org.au/metadata/23884 ">Seasonal ground cover - Landsat, JRSRP algorithm Version 3.0, Australia Coverage</a> which is based on a different satellite sensor.

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    This dataset consists of counts for multiple plant species obtained from the Ethabuka Station and Carlo Reserve in the Simpson Desert, Australia, from 2004-2013 by the Desert Ecology Research Group (DERG) in conjunction with LTERN. It also consists rainfall data obtained from 2004-2012. These datasets were used to perform a Dynamic Factor Analyses for the manuscript, "Life form explains consistent temporal trends across species: the application of dynamic factor analysis". For more information see: DERG; https://www.desertecology.edu.au.

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    <p>Digital Cover Photography (DCP) upward-looking images are collected to capture vegetation cover within the core hectare at the Litchfield Savanna SuperSite. These images can be used to estimate Leaf area index (LAI), Crown Cover or Foliage Projective Cover (FPC). </p><p> The Litchfield Savanna SuperSite was established in 2013 in Litchfield National Park. Site selection was influenced by the history of long-term monitoring work undertaken in this area by the Darwin Centre for Bushfire Research (formerly Bushfires NT). The core 1ha plot is dominated by Eucalyptus miniata. The site is representative of the dominant ecosystem type across northern Australia: frequently burnt tropical savanna in high rainfall areas. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/litchfield-savanna-supersite/ . </p><p> Photopoints are also collected at the site. </p>

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    <p>Digital Cover Photography (DCP) upward-looking images are collected twice per year to capture vegetation cover within the core hectare at Cumberland Plain SuperSite. These images can be used to estimate Leaf area index (LAI), Crown Cover or Foliage Projective Cover (FPC). The images are captured at the times of estimated maximum and minimum LAI. In addition, DCP images have been taken on a monthly basis from 2018-2020 at a subset of sites in the core hectare, co-located with litterfall traps and under-canopy radiation sensors, to evaluate more detailed seasonal dynamics of LAI and other aspects of canopy growth. </p><p>The Cumberland Plain SuperSite was established in 2012 in endangered remnant Eucalyptus woodland and is subject to pressure from invasive weeds, altered fire regimes, urban development, conversion to agriculture and extreme climate events. However, the woodland is in excellent condition with the exception of edge effects. The site is located on the Hawkesbury Campus of the University of Western Sydney in New South Wales. For additional site information, see https://deims.org/a1bb29d8-197c-4181-90d8-76083afd44bb/ . </p><p>Other images collected at the site include photopoints, phenocam time-lapse images taken from fixed overstorey cameras, and ancillary images of fauna and flora. </p>

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    This product has been superseded and will not be processed from early 2023. Please find the updated version 3 of this product at https://portal.tern.org.au/metadata/24070. Two fractional cover decile products, green cover and total cover, are currently produced from the historical timeseries of seasonal fractional cover images. These products compare, at the per-pixel level, the level of cover for the specific season of interest against the long term cover for that same season. For each pixel, all cover values for the relevant seasons within a baseline period (1988 to 2013) are classified into deciles. The cover value for the pixel in the season of interest is then classified according to the decile in which it falls.

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    <p>Digital Hemispherical Photography (DHP) upward-looking images are collected up to twice per year to capture vegetation and crown cover at Wombat Stringybark Eucalypt SuperSite. These images are used to estimate Leaf area index (LAI). The images are captured at the times of estimated maximum and minimum LAI. </p><p> The site was established in 2010 in the Wombat State Forest in Central Victoria. The site is dry eucalypt forest with main species <em>Eucalyptus obliqua</em>, <em>Eucalyptus radiata</em> and <em>Euclayptus rubida</em>. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/wombat-stringybark-eucalypt-supersite/. </p><p> Other images collected at the site include photopoints, phenocam time-lapse images taken from fixed under and overstorey cameras and ancilliary images of fauna and flora. </p>

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    <p> Digital Cover Photography (DCP) upward-looking images are collected at least twice per year to capture vegetation cover at Calperum SuperSite. These images can be used to estimate Leaf area index (LAI), Crown Cover or Foliage Projective Cover (FPC). The images are captured at the times of estimated maximum and minimum LAI.</p> <p> The Calperum Mallee SuperSite was established in 2011 and is located on Calperum Station with research plots located in mallee woodland (burnt in 2014), Callitris woodland and a river floodplain (recovering from extensive grazing), consisting of black box, river red gum and lignum. The core 1 ha plot is located in mallee woodland. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/calperum-mallee-supersite/ .</p> <p> Other images collected at the site include photopoints, phenocam time-lapse images taken from fixed under and overstorey cameras, panoramic landscape and ancillary images of fauna and flora. </p>

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    <p>Digital Hemispherical Photography (DHP) upward-looking images are collected twice per year to capture vegetation and crown cover at the Warra Tall Eucalypt SuperSite. These images are used to estimate Leaf area index (LAI). The images are captured at the times of estimated maximum and minimum LAI. </p> <p> The Warra Tall Eucalypt SuperSite was established in 2012 and is located in a stand of tall, mixed-aged <em>Eucalyptus obliqua</em> forest (1.5, 77 and &gt;250 years-old) with a rainforest / wet sclerophyll understorey and a dense man-fern (<em>Dicksonia antarctica</em>) ground-layer. The site experienced a fire in January 2019, which consumed the ground layer and killed a high proportion of the understorey trees but stimulated dense seedling regeneration. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/warra-tall-eucalypt-supersite/. </p><p> Other images collected at the site include photopoints, phenocam time-lapse images taken from fixed under and overstorey cameras, panoramic landscape and ancillary images of fauna and flora. </p>

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    Two fractional cover decile products, green cover and total cover, are currently produced from the historical timeseries of seasonal fractional cover images. These products compare, at the per-pixel level, the level of cover for the specific season of interest against the long term cover for that same season. For each pixel, all cover values for the relevant seasons within a baseline period (1988-2013) are classified into deciles. The cover value for the pixel in the season of interest is then classified according to the decile in which it falls. This product is based upon the JRSRP Fractional Cover 3.0 algorithm.

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    1. Restoration of degraded landscapes has become increasingly important for conservation of species and their habitats owing to habitat destruction and rapid environmental change. An increasing focus for restoration activity are old-fields as agricultural land abandonment has expanded in the developed world. Studies examining outcomes of ecological restoration predominantly focus on vegetation structure and plant diversity, and sometimes vertebrate fauna. Fewer studies have systematically investigated effects of restoration efforts on soil chemical and biophysical condition or ground-dwelling invertebrates and there is limited synthesis of these data. 2. This dataset comprised data for a global meta-analysis of published studies to assess the effects on soil properties and invertebrates of restoring land that was previously used for agriculture. Studies were included if the site had been either cropped or grazed, restoration was either active (planting) or passive (abandonment, fencing) and if adequate data on soil chemical or physical properties or invertebrate assemblages were reported for restored, control (cropped/grazed) or reference sites. 3. The dataset includes 42 studies, published between 1994 and 2019 that met the inclusion criteria, covering 16 countries across all continents. More studies assessed passive restoration approaches than active planting, and native species were more commonly planted than exotic species.