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    <p>Digital Cover Photography (DCP) upward-looking images are collected twice per year to capture vegetation cover within the core hectare at Cumberland Plain SuperSite. These images can be used to estimate Leaf area index (LAI), Crown Cover or Foliage Projective Cover (FPC). The images are captured at the times of estimated maximum and minimum LAI. In addition, DCP images have been taken on a monthly basis from 2018-2020 at a subset of sites in the core hectare, co-located with litterfall traps and under-canopy radiation sensors, to evaluate more detailed seasonal dynamics of LAI and other aspects of canopy growth. </p><p>The Cumberland Plain SuperSite was established in 2012 in endangered remnant Eucalyptus woodland and is subject to pressure from invasive weeds, altered fire regimes, urban development, conversion to agriculture and extreme climate events. However, the woodland is in excellent condition with the exception of edge effects. The site is located on the Hawkesbury Campus of the University of Western Sydney in New South Wales. For additional site information, see https://deims.org/a1bb29d8-197c-4181-90d8-76083afd44bb/ . </p><p>Other images collected at the site include photopoints, phenocam time-lapse images taken from fixed overstorey cameras, and ancillary images of fauna and flora. </p>

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    <p>Digital Cover Photography (DCP) upward-looking images are collected up to twice per year to capture vegetation cover at Tumbarumba Wet Eucalypt SuperSite. These images can be used to estimate Leaf area index (LAI), Crown Cover or Foliage Projective Cover (FPC). </p><p> The Tumbarumba Flux site was established in 2000 and started measuring in 2001. The 1 hectare (ha) SuperSite plot was established in 2015. Preliminary images have been captured since 2000 using various sampling strategies and protocols. Since 2015 the 1 ha Supersite has had a consistent DCP protocol implemented twice per year. The overstorey is dominated by <em>Eucalyptus delegatensis</em> and <em>Eucalyptus dalrympleana</em>. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/tumbarumba-wet-eucalypt-supersite/ .</p><p> Other images collected at the site include photopoints, phenocam time-lapse images taken from fixed under and overstorey cameras, and ancillary images of fauna and flora. </p>

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    <p>Digital Cover Photography (DCP) upward-looking images are collected to capture vegetation cover within the core hectare at the Litchfield Savanna SuperSite. These images can be used to estimate Leaf area index (LAI), Crown Cover or Foliage Projective Cover (FPC). </p><p> The Litchfield Savanna SuperSite was established in 2013 in Litchfield National Park. Site selection was influenced by the history of long-term monitoring work undertaken in this area by the Darwin Centre for Bushfire Research (formerly Bushfires NT). The core 1ha plot is dominated by Eucalyptus miniata. The site is representative of the dominant ecosystem type across northern Australia: frequently burnt tropical savanna in high rainfall areas. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/litchfield-savanna-supersite/ . </p><p> Photopoints are also collected at the site. </p>

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    Two fractional cover decile products, green cover and total cover, are currently produced from the historical timeseries of seasonal fractional cover images. These products compare, at the per-pixel level, the level of cover for the specific season of interest against the long term cover for that same season. For each pixel, all cover values for the relevant seasons within a baseline period (1988 to 2013) are classified into deciles. The cover value for the pixel in the season of interest is then classified according to the decile in which it falls.

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    <p> Digital Cover Photography (DCP) upward-looking images are collected at least twice per year to capture vegetation cover at Calperum SuperSite. These images can be used to estimate Leaf area index (LAI), Crown Cover or Foliage Projective Cover (FPC). The images are captured at the times of estimated maximum and minimum LAI.</p> <p> The Calperum Mallee SuperSite was established in 2011 and is located on Calperum Station with research plots located in mallee woodland (burnt in 2014), Callitris woodland and a river floodplain (recovering from extensive grazing), consisting of black box, river red gum and lignum. The core 1 ha plot is located in mallee woodland. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/calperum-mallee-supersite/ .</p> <p> Other images collected at the site include photopoints, phenocam time-lapse images taken from fixed under and overstorey cameras, panoramic landscape and ancillary images of fauna and flora. </p>

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    <p>Digital Hemispherical Photography (DHP) upward-looking images are collected twice per year to capture vegetation and crown cover at the Warra Tall Eucalypt SuperSite. These images are used to estimate Leaf area index (LAI). The images are captured at the times of estimated maximum and minimum LAI. </p> <p> The Warra Tall Eucalypt SuperSite was established in 2012 and is located in a stand of tall, mixed-aged <em>Eucalyptus obliqua</em> forest (1.5, 77 and &gt;250 years-old) with a rainforest / wet sclerophyll understorey and a dense man-fern (<em>Dicksonia antarctica</em>) ground-layer. The site experienced a fire in January 2019, which consumed the ground layer and killed a high proportion of the understorey trees but stimulated dense seedling regeneration. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/warra-tall-eucalypt-supersite/. </p><p> Other images collected at the site include photopoints, phenocam time-lapse images taken from fixed under and overstorey cameras, panoramic landscape and ancillary images of fauna and flora. </p>

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    <p>Digital Hemispherical Photography (DHP) upward-looking images are collected three times per year to capture vegetation and crown cover at the Gingin Banksia Woodland SuperSite. These images are used to estimate Leaf area index (LAI). </p> <p> The Gingin Banksia Woodland SuperSite was established in 2011 and is located in a natural woodland of high species diversity with an overstorey dominated by Banksia species. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/gingin-banksia-woodland-supersite/. </p><p> Other images collected at the site include digital cover photography (DCP), photopoints, phenocam time-lapse images taken from fixed under and overstorey cameras and ancillary images of fauna and flora. </p>

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    <p>Digital Hemispherical Photography (DHP) upward-looking images are collected up to twice per year to capture vegetation and crown cover at Wombat Stringybark Eucalypt SuperSite. These images are used to estimate Leaf area index (LAI). The images are captured at the times of estimated maximum and minimum LAI. </p><p> The site was established in 2010 in the Wombat State Forest in Central Victoria. The site is dry eucalypt forest with main species <em>Eucalyptus obliqua</em>, <em>Eucalyptus radiata</em> and <em>Euclayptus rubida</em>. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/wombat-stringybark-eucalypt-supersite/. </p><p> Other images collected at the site include photopoints, phenocam time-lapse images taken from fixed under and overstorey cameras and ancilliary images of fauna and flora. </p>

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    1. Restoration of degraded landscapes has become increasingly important for the conservation of species and their habitats owing to habitat destruction and rapid environmental change. An increasing focus on restoration activities of old-fields as agricultural land abandonment has expanded in the developed world. Studies examining outcomes of ecological restoration predominantly focus on vegetation structure and plant diversity, and sometimes vertebrate fauna. Fewer studies have systematically investigated the effects of restoration efforts on soil chemical and biophysical condition or ground-dwelling invertebrates and there is a limited synthesis of these data. 2. This dataset comprised data for a global meta-analysis of published studies to assess the effects on soil properties and invertebrates of restoring land that was previously used for agriculture. Studies were included if the site had been either cropped or grazed, restoration was either active (planting) or passive (abandonment, fencing) and if adequate data on soil chemical or physical properties or invertebrate assemblages were reported for restored, control (cropped/grazed) or reference sites. 3. The dataset includes 42 studies, published between 1994 and 2019 that met the inclusion criteria, covering 16 countries across all continents. More studies assessed passive restoration approaches than active planting, and native species were more commonly planted than exotic species.

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    This dataset consists of counts for multiple plant species obtained from the Ethabuka Station and Carlo Reserve in the Simpson Desert, Australia, from 2004-2013 by the Desert Ecology Research Group (DERG) in conjunction with LTERN. It also consists rainfall data obtained from 2004-2012. These datasets were used to perform a Dynamic Factor Analyses for the manuscript, "Life form explains consistent temporal trends across species: the application of dynamic factor analysis". For more information see: LTERN : http://www.ltern.org.au DERG; http://www.desertecology.edu.au.