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    The dataset contains maps of total % C<sub>3</sub> and C<sub>4</sub> plant cover, proportional C<sub>3</sub> and C<sub>4</sub> vegetation (relative to combined C<sub>3</sub> and C<sub>4</sub> cover), and vegetation &delta;<sup>13</sup>C isoscape (stable carbon isotope values) across Australia. Data are centered on year 2015. We used vegetation and land-use rasters to categorize grid-cells (100 m<sup>2</sup>) into woody (C<sub>3</sub>), native herbaceous (C<sub>3</sub> and C<sub>4</sub>), and herbaceous cropland (C<sub>3</sub> and C<sub>4</sub>) cover. TERN Ecosystem Surveillance field surveys and environmental factors were regressed to predict native C<sub>4</sub> herbaceous cover. These layers were combined and a &delta;<sup>13</sup>C mixing model was used to calculate site-averaged &delta;<sup>13</sup>C values.

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    This dataset lists plant species vouchered for identification from Rangeland sites across Australia by the TERN Surveillance Monitoring team, using standardised AusPlots methodologies. <br /> Plant specimens are methodologically collected at each site as part of the AusPlots Vegetation vouchering method. Recorded information includes the site, date of collection and a voucher barcode. The specimen data is updated with the identification date and authority details when species identification is confirmed by the Herbaria. <br /> Plant population and community, soil, basal area and structural information are also assessed at each site. See AusPlots Vegetation vouchering and Rangelands Vocabularies for a list of parameters collected. </br>

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    This dataset list soil characteristics observed in Rangeland sites across Australia by the TERN Surveillance Monitoring team, using standardised AusPlots methodologies. <br /> Soil observations are recorded at each site as part of the AusPlots Soil and Landscapes method. Observations on the soil surface conditions are also recorded as part of the AusPlots Plot description method.<br />

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    This dataset lists land surface characteristics observed in Rangeland sites across Australia by the TERN Ecosystem Surveillance team, using standardised AusPlots methodologies. <br /> Land surface observations are collected at each site as part of the AusPlots method. At each site, observations on ground cover, lithology, erosion (state, extent, and human accelerated), surface drainage, microrelief, aspect and angle are recorded as part of the Ausplots Ground cover and Plot description methods.<br />

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    This dataset lists soil profile observations described in Rangeland sites across Australia by the TERN Surveillance Monitoring team, using standardised AusPlots methodologies. <br> Soil profile samples are observed and collected at each site as part of the AusPlots Soil and Landscapes methods. For each soil profile sampled, soil horizon's colour, electrical conductivity, effervescence, ped characteristics, pH, texture and coarse fragments characteristics are described as part of the Ausplots Soil characterisation to 1&nbsp;m+ method. Soil specimens for the soil horizons are also collected for preservation (see AusPlots Soil characterisation and Soil samples method below).<br>

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    <br>This dataset lists plant species and their abundance identified at rangeland sites across Australia by the TERN Surveillance Monitoring team, using standardised AusPlots methodologies. <br /> <br>Plant occurrences (i.e. a sample of a plant at a particular point and time) are methodically identified at each site as part of the AusPlots Point intercept method. Plant species are identified at each site as part of the AusPlots Vegetation vouchering and Basal Area methods. In addition to site visit date and location, the information provided includes growth form, vegetative height and whether the plant is dead. In-canopy-sky is also recorded if there is no intercept to foliage or branches when viewing the canopy through the densitometer and can be used to calculate species cover or aerial cover. Other recorded information includes dead plants basal area and the number of sampling points. Species identification is updated once confirmed by Herbaria. Plant occurrences data can be aggregated across the site to calculate relative species abundance, green ground cover, species- growth form- and -community-level basal area.<br /> <br>In addition, at least one specimen is taken from each species at the site, assigned a barcode and provided for vouchering and further analyses. See AusPlots Rangelands Vocabularies for a list of parameters collected. </br>

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    <p>This data set provides the photosynthetic pathways for 2428 species recorded across 541 plots surveyed by Australia’s Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) between 2011 and 2017 (inclusive). TERN survey plots are 1 ha (100 x 100 m) permanently established sites located in a homogeneous area of terrestrial vegetation. At each plot, TERN survey teams record vegetation composition and structural characteristics and collect a range of plant samples using a point-intercept method. Species were assigned a photosynthetic pathway using literature and carbon stable isotope analysis of bulk tissue collected by TERN at the survey plots. </p><p>The data set is comprised of two data tables and one data descriptor that defines the values in the two data tables. The first table contains a list of each species and its photosynthetic pathway. The second table includes a list of all the peer-reviewed sources used to create this data set. </p><p>This data set will be updated on an annual basis as TERN’s plot network expands and new information becomes available. </p>

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    <br>This dataset lists soil samples collected in Rangeland sites across Australia by the TERN Surveillance Monitoring team, using standardised AusPlots methodologies. <br/> <br>Soil samples are collected at each site as part of the AusPlots Soil samples method. For each soil sample fine earth bulk density, gravel bulk density, wet and dry weight are estimated and coarse fragments lithology, abundance, size and shape observed as part of the Ausplots Soil samples and Soil bulk density method.<br/>

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    <p> TERN Ecosystem Surveillance is a plot-based field monitoring platform that tracks the direction and magnitude of change in Australia’s environments. Information on soils and vegetation is collected according to standardized, widely endorsed and consistent protocols across all plots, and includes the collection of soil and vegetation samples for subsequent analysis.</p> <p>Data collected by TERN is stratified across the entire continent to ensure adequate coverage of major Australian ecosystems, and measures are repeated at least once a decade, with the aim to establish replicate plots throughout the ecosystem types existing within Australia’s Major Vegetation Groups (MVG’s). Additional plots located in key environmental transition zones will be re-measured every five years.</p> <p>TERN users include researchers, land managers and policy-makers who require access to terrestrial ecosystem attributes collected over time from continental scale to field sites at hundreds of representative locations. TERN provides model-ready data that enables users to detect and interpret changes in ecosystems. In addition, TERN curates The TERN Australia Soil and Herbarium Collection with over 150,000 vegetation and soil samples (and associated contextual environmental data) freely available to loan on request.</p> <p>TERN’s world-class surveillance monitoring infrastructure will support long-term ecological inventory, environmental monitoring, environmental prediction, reporting and assessment, and underpin decisions about our greatest environmental challenges.</p> <p>Occurrence records can be accessed through the <a href="https://www.ala.org.au/">Atlas of Living Australia</a>.</p>

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    <br>This dataset lists the plant communities from Rangeland sites across Australia described by the TERN Surveillance Monitoring team, using standardised AusPlots methodologies. <br /> <br> For each plant community, species richness, relative species abundance, vegetation condition as well as the spatial extent of the community, are described using AusPlots Point intercept, Species richness, Relative species abundance, and Plot and Physical Descriptions methods. Plant species are identified at every site as part of the AusPlots Vegetation vouchering method. The specimen data is updated with the identification date and authority details when species identification is confirmed by the Herbaria.<br />