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    This data contains soil physico-chemical characteristics collected at 33 one hectare plots in the Karawatha Peri-Urban site in 2007.

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    This data contains soil physico-chemical characteristics collected at the Samford Peri-Urban site in 2013.

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    Soil collection and analysis of chemical and physical attributes was carried out at the Alice Mulga site to provide contextual data for the Biomes of Australian Soil Environments (BASE) soil microbial diversity project.

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    The record contains information on leaf trait and stable isotope data of <i>Eucalyptus salubris</i> trees in the Credo Flux tower area, from the Great Western Woodlands Site. Data on individual tree height, stem circumference and leaf traits such as leaf thickness, leaf mass, leaf density, specific leaf area, leaf chemical data, including the d<sup>13</sup>C and d<sup>15</sup>N content are provided. In addition, data on soil chemical analysis from the site are provided.

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    Soil collection and analysis of chemical and physical attributes was carried out at the Great Western Woodlands site to provide contextual data for the Biomes of Australian Soil Environments (BASE) soil microbial diversity project.

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    Soil collection and analysis of chemical and physical attributes was carried out at the Warra Tall Eucalypt site to provide contextual data for the Biomes of Australian Soil Environments (BASE) soil microbial diversity project.

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    We investigated recovery of soil chemical properties after restoration in semi-arid Western Australia, hypothesising that elevated nutrient concentrations would gradually decline post planting, but available phosphorus (P) concentrations would remain higher than reference conditions. We used a space-for-time substitution approach, comparing 10 planted old field plots with matched fallow cropland and reference woodlands. Sampling on planted old fields and reference woodland plots was stratified into open patches and under tree canopy to account for consistent differences between these areas. Soil samples to 10 cm depth were collected at 20 points across 30 plots. Ten samples were randomly collected and combined from locations beneath trees and a further 10 samples collected in gaps and combined, resulting in one soil sample for beneath tree canopy and another one for gap areas. Sampling occurred in autumn 2017 to capture potentially high concentrations of soil nitrate following the seasonal die-back of exotic annual plants typical of this Mediterranean-climate region. Samples were stored at 4 °C in plastic zip-lock bags until delivery to the CSBP Limited (Bibra Lake, WA) laboratories. Chemical parameters measured were plant available P (Colwell), plant available N (nitrate and ammonium), total N, plant available potassium (Colwell) and plant available sulphur (KCl 40). Lastly, electrical conductivity, pH (H2O, CaCl2), and soil texture were quantified as differences among plots could affect nutrient availability and soil chemistry. Soil available nutrients were also measured using Plant Root Simulator (PRS)TM resin probes (Western Ag Innovations, 2010, https://www.westernag.ca/inn). Probes contain anion or cation exchange membranes within a plastic stake. The membranes act as a sink for collecting nutrients and continuously absorb ions during deployment. Four anion and cation probes were placed vertically in the top 15 cm of soil at each stratification. Probes were left in the ground for three months during the growing season, from August to November 2017. This period was deemed suitable for semi-arid regions to achieve sufficient nutrient uptake but not too long to saturate probes. After removal, probes were cleaned with deionized water and sent to Western Ag Innovations (Canada) for analysis. All soil chemical analyses were conducted under laboratory conditions using standard test procedures. PRS probe nutrients are reported as micrograms/10cm2/time.

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    Experimental sites were established in the northern wheat-growing district of western Australia (Lat -29.66°, Long 116.18°) in August 2017, and monitored through to November 2019. We selected five planted old field sites with similar soil types and vegetation composition. Old fields were planted with York gum (Eucalyptus loxophleba Benth.) and dominant shrubs as understorey. At the time of sampling in 2017, vegetation age ranged from 8–13 years and distance from remnant measured 279 m (± 162 m). We established two control and two treatment plots, each measuring 5 m x 5 m, in the interrows of five planted old field sites. Both treatments were randomly assigned to plots within each site. Between August and early November 2017, we measured a total of 30 response variables at each of the control and treatment plots. Response variables included soil physical and chemical properties (bulk density, penetration resistance, soil moisture, nitrogen and carbon pools), microbial biomass, decomposition rate of roiboos and green tea as per the standardized Tea Bag Index (TBI) protocol, herbaceous vegetation cover and richness, and ant abundance and richness, as well as abundance and richness of ant functional groups.

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    Soil collection and analysis of chemical and physical attributes was carried out at the Karawatha Peri-Urban site to provide contextual data for the Biomes of Australian Soil Environments (BASE) soil microbial diversity project.

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    Soil collection and analysis of chemical and physical attributes was carried out at the Litchfield Savanna site to provide contextual data for the Biomes of Australian Soil Environments (BASE) soil microbial diversity project.