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SOIL MOISTURE/WATER CONTENT

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    This dataset includes volumetric soil water content measured across soil pits in the lowland rainforest of Cape Tribulation. Data were acquired using time-domain reflectometry (TDR) probes recording at soil surface (10 cm) and at depths (50, 100 and 150 cm) at 4 control points - PB1 and PB8 are in the SW quadrant of the crane plot, PB2 and PB5 are in the NW quadrant of the crane plot.

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    The Soil Moisture Integration and Prediction System (SMIPS) produces national extent daily estimates of volumetric soil moisture at a resolution of approximately 1km or 0.01 decimal degrees. SMIPS also generates an index of between 0-1 which approximates how full the 90cm metre soil moisture store is at a particular location and time. The SMIPS model itself consists of two linked soil moisture stores, a shallow quick responding 10cm upper store and a deeper, slower responding 80cm store. SMIPS is parameterised using physical properties from the <a href ='https://www.clw.csiro.au/aclep/soilandlandscapegrid/'>Soil and Landscape Grid of Australia </a>and takes a data model fusion approach for model forcing. Version 1.0 of the SMIPS model uses precipitation and potential evapotranspiration data from the Bureau of Meteorology’s <a href="http://www.bom.gov.au/water/landscape/assets/static/publications/AWRALv6_Model_Description_Report.pdf">AWRA Model</a>. In addition to version 1.0 of the model, an experimental version of the model is available for user testing. This version of the model uses precipitation data supplied by an experimental CSIRO daily rainfall surface generated using spatial data from the NASA Global Precipitation Mission as a base and enhanced using rainfall observations from the Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) rainfall gauge network, and various landscape covariates, processed using a machine learning approach. <br> To help increase model accuracy, the internal SMIPS model states are adjusted or ‘bumped’ by daily observational data from the European Space Agency’s Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission.

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    The Australian cosmic-ray soil moisture monitoring network was first established in 2010 to provide Australian and global researchers with spatially distributed intermediate scale soil moisture observations. A cosmic-ray sensor (CRS) provides continuous estimates of soil moisture over an area of approximately 30 hectares by measuring naturally generated fast neutrons (energy 10–1000 eV) that are produced by cosmic rays passing through the Earth’s atmosphere. The neutron intensity above the land surface is inversely correlated with soil moisture as it responds to the hydrogen contained in the soil and to a lesser degree to plant and soil carbon compounds. The cosmic-ray technique is also passive, non-contact, and is largely insensitive to bulk density, surface roughness, the physical state of water, and soil texture. The scale of CRS measurements fills the void between point scale sensor measurements and large scale satellite observations. The depth of measurements varies with the moisture content of the soil but is typically between 10-30 cm. The depth of observations is reported as ‘effective depth’. <br> The CosmOz network is expanding as new sensors are added over time. The initial network was funded by CSIRO Land and Water but more recently TERN has funded work to maintain the network add new sensors and deliver data more efficiently. The standard CRS installation includes; a cosmic-ray neutron tube, a rain gauge (2m high), temperature and humidity sensors, and an atmospheric pressure sensor. Measures of all parameters are reported at an hourly interval. Each CRS requires an in-field calibration across the footprint of measurements to convert neutron counts to soil moisture content. The calibration includes collection of soil samples for bulk density, lattice water content and soil organic carbon.<br> The Australia CosmOz network consists of <a href="https://cosmoz.csiro.au/sites">19 stations</a>. The extent of the network and available data can be seen at the CosmOz network web page: <a href="https://cosmoz.csiro.au/">https://cosmoz.csiro.au</a>. The data is also accessible from the <a href="https://landscapes-cosmoz-api.tern.org.au/rest/doc">TERN Cosmoz REST API</a>.<br> The calibration and correction procedures used by the network are described by <a href="https://doi.org/10.1002/2013WR015138">Hawdon et al. 2014 </a>.

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    The far north Queensland microclimate (FNQ-microclim) is an ongoing long-term microclimate monitoring project from across five tropical rainforest sites (Daintree Rainforest SuperSite, Cape Tribulation; Daintree Rainforest SuperSite, Cow Bay; Rex Range; Mt. Lewis National Park; Mt. Bellenden Ker), located within an elevation range of 40 - 1550 m a.s.l. Microclimatic parameters measured include: a) air temperature (about 15 cm above ground), b) near surface temperature at the interface between soil and air (less than 1 cm above ground), c) top soil temperature (about 10 cm below ground), and d) top soil moisture. Data are recorded every 15 minutes using the TMS-4 sensors (Temperature Moisture Sensor, T.M.O.S.T s.r.o, Prague, Czech Republic).

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    This data release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in semi-arid eucalypt woodland using eddy covariance techniques. It been processed using PyFluxPro (v3.3.3) as described in Isaac et al. (2017), <a href="https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017">https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017</a>. PyFluxPro takes data recorded at the flux tower and process this data to a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER). For more information about the processing levels, see <a href="https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki">https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki</a>.<br /> <br />The Cape Tribulation flux station was located in the land that is adjacent to the Daintree National Park which is part of the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area (WTWHA). The site is flanked to the west by coastal ranges rising to more than 1400m and to the east by the Coral Sea. The red clay loam podzolic soils are of metamorphic origin and have good drainage characteristics. The metamorphic rocks grade into granite boulders along Thompson Creek which runs along the northern boundary of the site. The crane site itself is gently sloping but the fetch area makes the site one of very complex terrain. The forest is classed as complex mesophyll vine forest (type 1a) and has an average canopy height of 25m. The dominant canopy trees belong to the Apocynaceae, Arecaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lauraceae, Meliaceae, Myristicaceae and Myrtaceae families. The forest is continuous for several kilometres around the crane except for an area 300m due east of the crane, which is regrowth forest. Annual average rainfall at the site is around 5180mm and is strongly seasonal, with 66% falling between January and April (wet season). Mean daily temperature ranges from 26.6°C in February to 21.2°C in July. <br> Tropical cyclones are a frequent occurrence in Far North Queensland. These severe tropical storm systems are natural phenomena which play a major role in determining the ecology of Queensland's tropical lowland rainforests. In March 1999 Tropical Cyclone Rona (Category 3) passed over the Cape Tribulation area causing widespread damage (gusts >170km/h). At the site several large trees fell, nearly all of the remaining trees were stripped of leaves and the lianas towers were torn to ground level. <br> The flux station was mounted at the 45m level on the tower of the Australian Canopy Crane external link. The canopy crane is a Liebherr 91 EC, freestanding construction tower crane. The crane is 48.5 metres tall with a radius of 55 metres enabling access to 1 hectare of rainforest. Fluxes of heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide were measured using the open-path eddy covariance technique. Supplementary measurements above the canopy included temperature, humidity, rainfall, total solar; these measurements have continued post the flux system decommissioning. Heat flux, soil temperature and water content (time domain reflectometry) were measured in proximity to the flux station; these measurements have continued post the flux system decommissioning. Detailed biometric measurements are made at the crane site and all trees have regular (5 yearly) dbh measurements and canopy mapping carried out. Monitoring bores (3) are located on site. Leaf litter measurements are carried out on a monthly basis. <br> For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/daintree-rainforest-supersite/ .<br /><br />

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    This data release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in semi-arid eucalypt woodland using eddy covariance techniques. It been processed using PyFluxPro (v3.3.1) as described in Isaac et al. (2017), <a href="https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017">https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017</a>. PyFluxPro takes data recorded at the flux tower and process this data to a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER). For more information about the processing levels, see <a href="https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki">https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki</a>.<br /> <br />The Alice Springs Mulga flux station is located on Pine Hill cattle station, near Alice Springs in the Northern Territory. The woodland is characterized by the Acacia aneura canopy, which is 6.5m tall on average. Elevation of the site is 606m above sea level, and the terrain is flat. Mean annual precipitation at the nearby (45km distant) Bureau of Meteorology station is 305.9mm but ranges between 100mm in 2009 to 750mm in 2010. Predominant wind directions are from the southeast and east.The extent of the woodland is 11km to the east of the flux station and 16km to the south. The soil is red sandy clay (50:50 sand:clay) overlying a 49m deep water table. Pine Hill Station is a functioning cattle station that has been in operation for longer than 50 years.The instrument mast is 13.7m tall. Fluxes of heat, water vapour and carbon are measured using the open-path eddy covariance technique at 11.6m. Supplementary measurements above the canopy include temperature and humidity (11.6m), windspeed and wind direction (9.25m), downwelling and upwelling shortwave and longwave radiation (12.2m). Precipitation is monitored in a canopy gap (2.5m). Supplementary measurements within and below the canopy include barometric pressure (1m), wind speed (2m, 4.25m and 6.5m), and temperature and humidity (2m, 4.25m and 6m). Below ground soil measurements are made in bare soil, mulga, and understory habitats and include ground heat flux (0.08m), soil temperature (0.02m – 0.06m) and soil moisture (0 – 0.1m, 0.1 – 0.3m, 0.6 – 0.8m and 1.0 – 1.2m). Ancillary measurements include soil water and carbon fluxes, leaf water potential, leaf gas exchange, stem basal area, stem growth, litter production, leaf area index, stem hydraulic conductance, and carbon and water stable isotope ratios. The site was established in September 2010 in conjunction with the Woodforde River NGCRT Superscience Site and is managed by the University of Technology Sydney.<br />For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/alice-mulga-supersite/ <br /><br />

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    This data release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in semi-arid eucalypt woodland using eddy covariance techniques. It been processed using PyFluxPro (v3.3.0) as described in Isaac et al. (2017), <a href="https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017">https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017</a>. PyFluxPro takes data recorded at the flux tower and process this data to a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER). For more information about the processing levels, see <a href="https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki">https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki</a>. <br /> <br /> The Cow Bay flux station was established in December 2008 and managed by James Cook University. The forest is classified as complex mesophyll vine forest, there are 94 species in the core 1Ha, and average tree height is 22m. Elevation of the site is 90m and mean annual precipitation is 3935mm. The Daintree Rainforest is one of the most biodiverse forests in Australia.The instruments are mounted on a walk-up tourist tower at 35m. Fluxes of heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide are measured using the open-path eddy flux technique. Supplementary measurements above the canopy include temperature, humidity, windspeed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation.The early years 2009 - 12 had several data gaps. Shadowing of the radiometric equipment continues to cause artifacts on the radiometers - these can be seen as reduction in downwelling radiation with solar inclination. The site is part of the FNQ Rainforest SuperSite - associated with the Daintree node, which is part of the TERN Australian SuperSite Network (ASN). <br/> For additional site information, see https://supersites.tern.org.au/supersites/fnqr-daintree .<br />

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    This data release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in semi-arid eucalypt woodland using eddy covariance techniques. It been processed using PyFluxPro (v3.3.3) as described in Isaac et al. (2017), <a href="https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017">https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017</a>. PyFluxPro takes data recorded at the flux tower and process this data to a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER). For more information about the processing levels, see <a href="https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki">https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki</a>. <br /><br /> This is a topographically flat area, primarily comprised of the following soil types: sandy loams, scattered clays, red brown earths, transitional red brown earth, sands over clay and deep sands. Stream valleys and layered soil and sedimentary materials are found across the landscape. <br /><br /> The flux station tower extends to 20m, however flux measurements are recorded from slightly lower than this. Mean annual precipitation from a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site measured 465 mm. Maximum temperatures ranged from 37.4°C (in January) to 16.6°C (in July), while minimum temperatures ranged from 29.0°C (in January) to 11.8°C (in July). Maximum temperatures varied on a seasonal basis by approximately 20.8°C and minimum temperatures by 17.2°C. <br /> The site is within a wider research area (60 x 60 km) that supports a network of flux stations, which have been in operation since late 2001 onwards.<br /><br />

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    This data release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in semi-arid eucalypt woodland using eddy covariance techniques. It been processed using PyFluxPro (v3.3.0) as described in Isaac et al. (2017), <a href="https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017">https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017</a>. PyFluxPro takes data recorded at the flux tower and process this data to a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER). For more information about the processing levels, see <a href="https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki">https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki</a>. <br /> <br /> The site is classified as an open woodland savanna. The overstory is co-dominated by tree species <em>Eucalyptus miniata</em> and <em>Eucalyptus tentrodonata</em>, and average tree height is 14–16m. Elevation of the site is close to 64m and mean annual precipitation is 1750mm. Maximum temperatures range from 30.4°C (in July) to 33.2°C (in November), while minimum temperatures range from 19.3°C (in July) to 25.4°C (in November). Therefore, the maximum and minimum range varies from 7°C (wet season) to 11°C (dry season). <br /><br /> The instrument mast is 23m tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements are taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation are measured above the canopy. Soil heat fluxes are measured and soil moisture content is gathered using time domain reflectometry.<br /><br />

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    This data release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in semi-arid eucalypt woodland using eddy covariance techniques. It been processed using PyFluxPro (v3.3.0) as described in Isaac et al. (2017), <a href="https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017">https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017</a>. PyFluxPro takes data recorded at the flux tower and process this data to a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER). For more information about the processing levels, see <a href="https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki">https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki</a>. <br /><br /> This is a topographically flat area, primarily comprised of the following soil types: sandy loams, scattered clays, red brown earths, transitional red brown earth, sands over clay and deep sands. Stream valleys and layered soil and sedimentary materials are found across the landscape. <br /><br /> The flux station tower extends to 20m, however flux measurements are recorded from slightly lower than this. Mean annual precipitation from a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site measured 465 mm. Maximum temperatures ranged from 37.4°C (in January) to 16.6°C (in July), while minimum temperatures ranged from 29.0°C (in January) to 11.8°C (in July). Maximum temperatures varied on a seasonal basis by approximately 20.8°C and minimum temperatures by 17.2°C. <br /> The site is within a wider research area (60 x 60 km) that supports a network of flux stations, which have been in operation since late 2001 onwards.<br /><br />