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Micromoles per mole

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.4.7) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br><br> Fletcherview Tropical Rangeland SuperSite was established in 2021 at James Cook University’s Fletcherview Research Station, a fully operational outback cattle station located 50&nbsp;km west of Townsville, Queensland. The site is used for cattle grazing and is characterised by tall open savanna. The vegetation is dominated by native grasses such as blackspear and kangaroo grasses, as well as introduced species like buffel grass, signal grass and leucaena. Fletcherview typically experiences a dry and wet season, with most rainfall occurring between January and April.<br />

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    This dataset consists of measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer at Fletcherview Research Station in Queensland using eddy covariance techniques.<br /> Fletcherview Tropical Rangeland SuperSite was established in 2021 at James Cook University’s Fletcherview Research Station, a fully operational outback cattle station located 50 km west of Townsville, Queensland. The site is used for cattle grazing and is characterised by tall open savanna. The vegetation is dominated by native grasses such as blackspear and kangaroo grasses, as well as introduced species like buffel grass, signal grass and leucaena. Fletcherview typically experiences a dry and wet season, with most rainfall occurring between January and April. <br />For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/fletcherview-tropical-rangeland-supersite/. <br />This data is also available at http://data.ozflux.org.au .<br />

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.4.7) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br> <br>The forest is classed as a tall, wet sclerophyll forest, and the dominant <em>Eucalyptus Regnans</em> or mountain ash trees have an average canopy height of 75&nbsp;m. The site contains a chronosequence of (20, 80 and 300) stand ages that were established during fires occurring over the last 300 years. The area is assigned the IUCN Category II (National Parks) of the United Nations’ list of National Parks and protected areas, which means the park is primarily managed for ecosystem conservation. The catchment area is dominated by mountain ash, the world’s tallest flowering plant (angiosperm). Trees can reach heights of more than 90&nbsp;m in areas with high rainfall and fertile soil. Mountain ash forests are confined to the cool mountain regions with elevations ranging from 460 to 1100&nbsp;m and average rainfalls of 1100 to 2000&nbsp;mm/y. These trees are well distributed throughout Victoria’s Central Highlands including the Otway Ranges and Strzlecki Ranges; they are also found in Tasmania. The catchment area contains a portion of the Mt. Disappointment range, the Divide and the headwaters of Wallaby Creek and Silver Creek, and much of the slopes are characterised as flat to moderate.</br> <br>The station itself is located within an old growth stand with individual trees as old as 300 years. Below the dominant canopy lies a temperate rainforest understorey consisting of <em>Pomaderris aspera</em> and <em>Olearia argophylla</em> species, which are 10 to 18&nbsp;m tall. The lower layers of vegetation are dominated by tree ferns (<em>Cyathea australis</em> and <em>Dicksonia antartica</em>) and extensive tracts of rosette and rhizonic ferns (<em>Polystichum proliferum</em> and <em>Blechnum wattsii</em>) as well as acacia trees. The elevation is approximately 720&nbsp;m. The major soil type within the forest is krasnozemic soils, which are friable red/brown soils, with high amounts of organic matter in the upper 20 to 30&nbsp;cm. However, the composition of krasnozemic soils is not homogenous, but rather varies with altitude. Grey-yellow podsolised soils can be found at lower altitudes, while krasnozemic loams is characteristic of the higher altitudes of the Kinglake and of the Hume Plateau. The clay content of these soils increases with depth until at least 200&nbsp;cm deep, where after a transition soils contain rock fragments. The climate of the study area is classified as a cool, temperate zone, with the highest temperatures occurring during the summer months of December – February (13.8 to 22.5&nbsp;°C), whilst the coolest temperatures are experienced in May and August (4.7 to 9.2&nbsp;°C). Average annual precipitation is 1209&nbsp;mm, with a maximum rainfall occurring in June (Ashton, 2000). The study site experiences foggy conditions after sunset during autumn and winter.</br> <br>The original station had a main mast at 110&nbsp;m. This station was destroyed in February 2009 by bushfires. A replacement station was established in March 2010 and started recording in May 2010. The mast sat at a height of 5&nbsp;m. The post-fire instrumentation was not as diverse as the pre-fire instrumentation.</br>

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    This dataset contains leaf functional trait measurements describing leaf structure, chemistry and metabolism collected from the Daintree Rainforest, Cape Tribulation site, in the dry season 2012 and wet season 2014.

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.4.7) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br> <br>Samford flux station is situated on an improved (<em>Paspalum dilatum</em>) pasture in the humid subtropical climatic region of coastal south-east Queensland. Located only 20&nbsp;km from the centre of Brisbane city, Samford Valley provides an ideal case study to examine the impact of urbanisation and land use change on ecosystem processes. The valley covers an area of some 82&nbsp;km<sup>2</sup> and is drained in the southern regions by the Samford creek, which extends some 13&nbsp;km to Samford Village and into the South Pine River. The Samford Valley is historically a rural area experiencing intense urbanisation, with the population increasing almost 50% in the 10 years to 2006 (Morton Bay Regional Council, 2011). Within the Samford valley study region, the Samford Ecological Research Facility (SERF) not only represents a microcosm of current and historical land uses in the valley, but provides a unique opportunity to intensively study various aspects of ecosystem health in a secure, integrated and long term research capacity. Mean annual minimum and maximum temperatures at a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site are 13.1&nbsp;°C and 25.6&nbsp;°C respectively while average rainfall is 1102&nbsp;mm.</br>

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.4.15) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br><br> The Yarramundi Control Paddock site is located near Richmond, NSW (GPS coordinates -33.613469, 150.734864). The site is about 1&nbsp;km east of the Cumberland Plain Woodland flux tower. The climate is warm-temperate, with annual rainfall averaging 728&nbsp;mm, mean maximum temperature in January of 30.4&deg;C and mean minimum temperature in July of 3.6&deg;C (BOM station 067105). The elevation of the site is about 20&nbsp;m asl and the topography is flat. The soil is sandy loam in texture, organic carbon content is <1% nutrient availability is very low in the top 10&nbsp;cm; iron concretions below 50&nbsp;cm indicate poor drainage at times. The vegetation canopy is less than 1&nbsp;m tall, and the plant community is dominated by exotic herbaceous perennials, including <em>Conyza sumatrensis</em>, <em>Setaria parviflora</em>, <em>Cynodon dactylon</em>, <em>Commelina cyanea</em>, <em>Senecio madagascariensis</em>, and <em>Eragrostis curvula</em>. <br /> <br> Fluxes of water vapour, carbon dioxide and heat are quantified with the open-path eddy flux technique from a 2.5&nbsp;m tall mast. Additional measurements above the canopy include temperature, humidity, rainfall and net radiation, and photographs are taken several times per day to track canopy greenness.</br>

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    This data release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in semi-arid eucalypt woodland using eddy covariance techniques. It been processed using PyFluxPro (v3.3.3) as described in Isaac et al. (2017), <a href="https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017">https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017</a>. PyFluxPro takes data recorded at the flux tower and process this data to a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER). For more information about the processing levels, see <a href="https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki">https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki</a>. <br /> <br /> The site was identified as tropical pasture dominated by species <em>Chamaecrista rotundifolia</em> (Round-leaf cassia cv. Wynn), <em>Digitaria milijiana</em> (Jarra grass) and <em>Aristida sp.</em> standing at approximately 0.3m tall. The soil at the site was a mixture of red kandosol and deep sand. Elevation of the site was close to 70m and mean annual precipitation at a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site was 1250mm. Maximum temperatures ranged from 37.5°C (in October) to 31.2°C (in June), while minimum temperatures ranged from 12.6°C (in July) to 23.8°C (in January). Maximum temperatures varied on a seasonal basis between 6.3°C while minimum temperatures varied by 11.2°C. <br /> <br /> The instrument mast was 15 meters tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements were taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation were measured. <br />Ancillary measurements taken at the site included LAI, leaf-scale physiological properties (gas exchange, leaf isotope ratios, N and chlorophyll concentrations), vegetation optical properties and soil physical properties. Airborne based remote sensing (Lidar and hyperspectral measurements) was carried out across the transect in September 2008. <br /> The site was destroyed by fire in September 2013. <br />

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    This data release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in semi-arid eucalypt woodland using eddy covariance techniques. It been processed using PyFluxPro (v3.3.3) as described in Isaac et al. (2017), <a href="https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017">https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017</a>. PyFluxPro takes data recorded at the flux tower and process this data to a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER). For more information about the processing levels, see <a href="https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki">https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki</a>. <br /> <br /> <em>Eucalyptus obliqua</em> forests dominate the vegetation below 650 m where they exist as fire-maintained communities. On fertile soils these forests attain mature heights in excess of 55m: the tallest <em>E. obliqua</em>reaches a height of 90m. The flux station is installed in a stand of tall, mixed-aged <em>E.obliqua</em> forest (77 and >250 years-old) with a rainforest understorey and a dense man-fern (<em>Dicksonia antarctica</em>) ground-layer, on a small flat of elevation 100 m adjacent to the Huon River. The understorey vegetation progresses from wet sclerophyll (dominated by <em>Pomaderris apatala</em> and <em>Acacia dealbata</em>) to rainforest (dominated by <em>Nothofagus cunninghamii</em>, <em>Atherosperma moschatum</em>, <em>Eucryphia lucida</em> and <em>Phyllocladus aspleniifolius</em>) with increasing time intervals between fire events. The site supports prodigous quantities of coarse woody debris as is characteristic of these fire-maintained eucalypt forests on fertile sites in southern Tasmania. <br />The soil at the flux site is derived from Permian mudstone and has a gradational profile with a dark brown organic clayey silt topsoil overlying a yellow brown clay. <br />The climate of Warra is classified as temperate with a mild summer and no dry season. Mean annual precipitation is 1700 mm with a relatively uniform seasonal distribution. Summer temperatures peak in January (min. 8.4°C – max 19.2°C) with winter temperatures reaching their lowest in July (min 2.6°C – max 8.4°C).<br /><br />The instruments are mounted at the top of an 80m tall guyed steel lattice tower. Supplementary measurements above the canopy include temperature, humidity, windspeed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation. An open-path gas analyser (EC150) was replaced by a closed-path gas analyser (EC155) at the end of Jan 2015.Soil moisture content is measured using Time Domain Reflectometry, while soil heat fluxes and temperature are also measured. Micro-meteorology (CO2, H2O, energy fluxes), meteorology (temp, humidity, wind speed and direction, rainfall) taken from the Warra Flux Site from 2013 to late 2016. Data incomplete due to ongoing problems since changing the open-path IRGA to a closed path system (CPEC200) during 2015. Soil data (moisture, heat flux, temp) complete for time period. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/warra-tall-eucalypt-supersite/ .<br><br>

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.4.15) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br> <br>The site is located on a low lying plain dominated by Mitchell Grass (<em>Astrebla</em> spp.). Elevation of the site is close to 250&nbsp;m and mean annual precipitation at a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site is 640&nbsp;mm. Maximum temperatures range from 28.4&nbsp;°C (in June/ July) to 39.1&nbsp;°C (in December), while minimum temperatures range from 11.2&nbsp;°C (in July) to 24.4&nbsp;°C (in December).</br> <br>The instrument mast is 5&nbsp;m tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements are taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall and net radiation are measured. Soil heat fluxes are measured and soil moisture content is gathered using time domain reflectometry.</br> <br>Ancillary measurements taken at the site include LAI, leaf-scale physiological properties (gas exchange, leaf isotope ratios, nitrogen and chlorophyll concentrations), vegetation optical properties and soil physical properties. Airborne based remote sensing (Lidar and hyperspectral measurements) was carried out at the site in September 2008. Biomass harvest measured: mean live biomass 0.00&nbsp;gm<sup>-2</sup> (standard error: 0.00), mean standing dead biomass 163.42&nbsp;gm<sup>-2</sup> (standard error: 16.73), mean litter biomass 148.99&nbsp;gm<sup>-2</sup> (standard error: 21.32), total mean biomass 312.40&nbsp;gm<sup>-2</sup> (standard error: 30.80). Soil consists of: clay 14.47%, silt 51.23%, sand 34.30%.</br>

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.4.15) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br> <br>The flux station site is located within an area of dryland agriculture. The surrounding area is dominated by broadacre farming practices. The vegetation cover is predominantly pasture. Elevation of the site is close to 152&nbsp;m and mean annual precipitation at a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site measures 650&nbsp;mm. Maximum temperatures range from 12.3&nbsp;°C (in July) to 29.7&nbsp;°C (in February), while minimum temperatures range from 10.4&nbsp;°C (in July) to 26.8&nbsp;°C (in February).</br> <br>The instrument mast is 4&nbsp;m tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements are taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall and net radiation are measured. Soil heat fluxes are measured and soil moisture content is gathered using time domain reflectometry.</br>