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FOREST COMPOSITION/VEGETATION STRUCTURE

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    <p>This data set consists of .tif files of true colour orthomosaics for expansive areas of mangroves in Kakadu National Park in Australia's Northern Territory.</p> <p>The orthomosaics were generated from 68 stereo pairs of true colour aerial photographs acquired in 1991 in the lower reaches of the East Alligator, West Alligator, South Alligator and Wildman Rivers and Field Island, Kakadu National Park, Northern Australia (Mitchell et al., 2007). The photographs were taken at a flying height of 13,000 ft (3,960 m) using a Wild CR10, a standard photogrammetric camera with a frame size of 230 x 230 mm. The focal length was 152 mm. The photographs were scanned by Airesearch (Darwin) with a photogrammetric scanner to generate digital images with a pixel resolution between 12 and 15 mm. The orthomosaics have a spatial resolution of 1 m, cover an area of approximately 742 km<sup>2</sup> and a coastal distance of 86 km. </p> <p>These orthomosaics were co-registered using ground control points identified from 1:100,000 digital topographic maps with a Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM), and subsequently co-registered to LiDAR data acquired over the same region in 2011.</p>

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    <p>This data set consists of a shapefile/kml of mangrove extent and dominant species for Kakadu National Park mangroves generated from true colour aerial photographs acquired in 1991.</p> <p>From true color 1991 orthomosaics of Field Island and the Wildman, West, and South Alligator Rivers, mangroves were mapped by first applying a fine scale spectral difference segmentation within eCognition to all three visible bands (blue, green, and red). A maximum likelihood (ML) algorithm within the environment for visualizing images (ENVI) software was then used to classify all segments using training areas associated with mangroves, but also water, mudflats, sandflats, and coastal woodlands. These were identified through visual interpretation of the imagery. Segmentation was necessary as 1) the diversity of structures and shadows within and between tree crowns limited the application of pixel-based classification procedures and 2) the color balance between the different photographs comprising the orthomosaics varied. All segments were examined individually and methodically to determine whether they should be reallocated to a non-mangrove class (e.g., mudflats) or confirmed as mangroves. Open woodlands dominated by Eucalyptus species could also be visually identified within the aerial photography (AP) orthoimages, although their discrimination was assisted by only considering areas where the underlying LiDAR DTM (Digital Terrain Model) exceeded 10 m, assuming this excludes tidally inundated sections.</p>

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    <p>Fixed cameras installed at the Daintree Rainforest SuperSite - Cape Tribulation provide a time series of fine scale data as a long-term record of vegetation structure and condition. This dense time series of phenocam images provides data for analysis of ecological responses to climate variability, and when consolidated across the entire terrestrial ecosystem research network, supports calibration and validation of satellite-derived remote sensing data, ensuring delivery of higher quality results for broader scale environmental monitoring products. </p><p> Phenocam images for the Cape Tribulation site are available from 2013 to 2016 and were usually captured hourly during daylight hours. </p><p> The site is located at the Daintree Rainforest Observatory in Lowland Complex Mesophyll Vine Forest near Cape Tribulation. Flux monitoring was established in 2001 with additional monitoring capabilities added over time. The site has more than 80 species including canopy trees belonging to the <em>Arecaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rutaceae, Meliaceae, Myristicaceae and Icacinaceae</em> families. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/daintree-rainforest-supersite/. </p><p> Other images collected at the site include photopoints, digital hemispheric photography (DHP) and ancilliary images of fauna and flora. </p>

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    <p>Fixed cameras installed at the Wombat Stringybark Eucalypt SuperSite provide a time series of fine scale data as a long-term record of vegetation structure and condition. This dense time series of phenocam images provides data for analysis of ecological responses to climate variability, and when consolidated across the entire terrestrial ecosystem research network, supports calibration and validation of satellite-derived remote sensing data, ensuring delivery of higher quality results for broader scale environmental monitoring products. </p> <p>Images are available from 2012 and are usually captured hourly during daylight hours. A new camera will be operational at the site from the first quarter of 2021.</p> <p> The site was established in 2010 in the Wombat State Forest in Central Victoria. The site is dry eucalypt forest with main species <em>Eucalyptus obliqua</em>, <em>Eucalyptus radiata</em> and <em>Euclayptus rubida</em>. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/wombat-stringybark-eucalypt-supersite/. </p><p> Other images collected at the site include photopoints, digital hemispherical photography (DHP) and ancilliary images of fauna and flora. </p>

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    This dataset is a collection of drone lidar data from plots across Australia (AusPlots, SuperSites, Cal/Val sites to be established in the future). The aim of these drone surveys is to capture vegetation structure. The standardised data collection and data processing protocols developed in 2022 are based on the DJI Matrice 300 (M300) RTK drone platform. Lidar sensor DJI Zenmuse L1 is used with DJI Matrice 300 (M300) RTK platform to capture RGB colourised 3D point clouds. The data is georeferenced using the onboard GNSS in M300 and the D-RTK 2 base station. DJI Terra software was used to generate 3D point clouds from the raw lidar data. The protocols include flight planning and data collection guidelines for a 100 x 100 m TERN plot, and the processing workflow used on DJI Terra. Mission-specific metadata for each plot is provided in the imagery/metadata folder (please refer to the imagery collection). The Drone Data Collection and Lidar Processing protocols can be found at <em> https://www.tern.org.au/field-survey-apps-and-protocols/ </em>.

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    <p>Fixed cameras installed at Warra Tall Eucalypt SuperSite provide a time series of fine scale data from canopy level as a long-term record of vegetation structure and condition. This dense time series of phenocam images provides data for analysis of ecological responses to climate variability, and when consolidated across the entire terrestrial ecosystem research network, supports calibration and validation of satellite-derived remote sensing data, ensuring delivery of higher quality results for broader scale environmental monitoring products. </p><p> Overstorey nadir images were acquired between 2016 and 2017 and oblique from 2016 to 2018, with acquisition at least hourly during daylight hours. Understory images were captured from 2015 to 2016. New cameras will be operational at the site from the second quarter of 2021. </p><p> The Warra Tall Eucalypt SuperSite was established in 2012 and is located in a stand of tall, mixed-aged <em>Eucalyptus obliqua</em> forest (1.5, 77 and &gt;250 years-old) with a rainforest / wet sclerophyll understorey and a dense man-fern (<em>Dicksonia antarctica</em>) ground-layer. The site experienced a fire in January 2019, which consumed the ground layer and killed a high proportion of the understorey trees but stimulated dense seedling regeneration. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/warra-tall-eucalypt-supersite/. </p><p> Other images collected at the site include photopoints, digital hemispheric photography (DHP), panoramic landscape and ancillary images of fauna and flora. </p>

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    This dataset lists vegetation strata and the three most dominant species in each stratum identified at rangeland sites across Australia by the TERN Surveillance Monitoring team, using standardised AusPlots methodologies. <br /> Vegetation strata are methodically identified at each site as part of the AusPlots <a href="http://linked.data.gov.au/def/ausplots-cv/d5685cab-13e7-4939-9d77-1cca9254207a">Structural summary and homogeneity</a> method. The information provided includes the type of strata found and the three most dominant species on each stratum.<br />

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    Vertical plant profiles for the Australian continent were derived through integration of ICESat GLAS waveforms with ALOS PALSAR and Landsat data products. Co-registered Landsat Foliage Projected Cover (FPC) and ALOS PALSAR L-band HH and HV mosaics were segmented to generate objects with similar radar backscatter and cover characteristics. Within these, height, cover, age class and L-band backscatter characteristics were summarised based on the ICESat and Landsat time-series and ALOS PALSAR datasets.

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    Fixed cameras installed at Great Western Woodlands SuperSite provide a time series of fine scale data as a long-term record of vegetation structure and condition. This dense time series of phenocam images provides data for analysis of ecological responses to climate variability, and when consolidated across the entire terrestrial ecosystem research network, supports calibration and validation of satellite-derived remote sensing data, ensuring delivery of higher quality results for broader scale environmental monitoring products. <br /> Images are available from the understory camera position from 2013 to 2017, and from one or more overstorey positions between 2012 and 2018. Images are captured hourly during daylight hours. New cameras will be operational at the site from the second quarter of 2021.<br /><br /> The Great Western Woodlands SuperSite was established in 2012 in the Credo Conservation Reserve. The site is in semi-arid woodland and was operated as a pastoral lease from 1907 to 2007. The core 1 ha plot is characterised by Eucalyptus salmonophloia (salmon gum), with Eucalyptus salubris and Eucalyptus clelandii dominating other research plots. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/great-western-woodlands-supersite/ .<br /><br /> Other images collected at the site include photopoints, digital cover photography (DCP), panoramic landscape and ancillary images of fauna and flora.

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    This data contains a list of all vascular plants surveyed in the Great Western Woodlands site in 2013.