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Environmental management

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    This dataset contains predictions of the aboveground biomass density (AGBD) for Australia for 2020. Data were generated by the Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) NASA mission, which used a full-waveform LIDAR attached to the International Space Station to provide the first global, high-resolution observations of forest vertical structure. Data include both Level 4A (~25&nbsp;m footprints) and Gridded Level 4B (1&nbsp;km x 1&nbsp;km) Version 2. The Australian portion of the data was extracted from the original global datasets <a href="https://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=2056">GEDI L4A Footprint Level Aboveground Biomass Density</a> and <a href="https://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=2299">GEDI L4B Gridded Aboveground Biomass Density</a>.

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    The seasonal dynamic reference cover method images are created using a modified version of the dynamic reference cover method developed by <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2012.02.021">Bastin et al (2012) </a>. This approach calculates a minimum ground cover image over all years to identify locations of most persistent ground cover in years with the lowest rainfall, then uses a moving window approach to calculate the difference between the window's central pixel and its surrounding reference pixels. The output is a difference image between the cover amount of a pixel's reference pixels and the actual cover at that pixel for the season being analysed. Negative values indicate pixels which have less cover than the reference pixels. The main differences between this method and the original method are that this method uses seasonal fractional ground cover rather than the preceding ground cover index (GCI) and this method excludes cleared areas and certain landforms (undulating slopes), which are considered unsuitable for use as reference pixels. This product is based upon the JRSRP Fractional Cover 3.0 algorithm.

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    The woody vegetation extent for Queensland is attributed with an estimated age in years since the last significant disturbance. The method uses a sequential Conditional Random Fields classifier applied to Landsat time series starting 1988 to predict woody cover over the time period. A set of heuristic rules is used to detect and track regrowing woody vegetation in the time series of woody probabilities and record the approximate start and end dates of the most recent regrowth event. Regrowth detection is combined with the Statewide Land and Trees Study (SLATS) Landsat historic clearing data to provide a preliminary estimate of age since disturbance for each woody pixel in the woody extent. The 'last disturbance' may be due to a clearing event or other disturbance such as fire, flood, drought-related death etc. Note that not all recorded disturbances may result in complete loss of woody vegetation, so the estimated age since disturbance does not always represent the age of the ecosystem. The age since disturbance product is derived from multiple satellite image sources and derived products which represent different scales and resolutions: Landsat (30&nbsp;m), Sentinel-2 (10&nbsp;m) and Earth-i (1&nbsp;m).

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    The datafile contains the composition and abundance of airborne pollen for the location of Murdoch University, Perth, Australia. The data was collected for the period between September 2006 to December 2006 as part of a study of atmospheric particles and human health. This forms part of a study of the Australian Aerobiology working group (Haberle, Bowman, Newnham, Johnston, Beggs, Buters, Campbell, Erbas, Godwin, Green, Heute, Jaggard, Medek, Murray, Newbiggin, Thibaudon, Vicendese, Williamson, Davies “The macroecology of airborne pollen in Australian and New Zealand urban areas”).

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    The datafile contains the composition and abundance of airborne pollen in Dunedin, New Zealand. The data was collected for the period from October 1992 to February 1993 as part of a nationwide survey of airborne pollen. This forms part of a study of the Australian Aerobiology working group (Haberle, Bowman, Newnham, Johnston, Beggs, Buters, Campbell, Erbas, Godwin, Green, Heute, Jaggard, Medek, Murray, Newbiggin, Thibaudon, Vicendese, Williamson, Davies “The macroecology of airborne pollen in Australian and New Zealand urban areas”).

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    Wood block decomposition assessment at the Litchfield Savanna site is part of a global program looking at the influence of microbes and invertebrates on wood decay. A common protocol was developed exposing small (~400 cm3) pieces of a wood-substrate (untreated Pinus radiata) to the environment excluding and not-excluding macroinvertebrates (e.g. termites) by the use of a plastic mesh.

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    <p>This dataset contains audio files from Robson Creek Rainforest SuperSite. The 25 hectare site lies on the Atherton Tablelands in the wet tropical rainforests of Australia at 680-740&nbsp;m elevation. It is situated in Danbulla National Park within the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. The forest is classified as Regional Ecosystem (RE) 7.3.36a, complex mesophyll vine forest. The climate is seasonal with approximately 60% of rain falling between January and March and the landform is moderately inclined with a low relief. There are 208 species in the site, and maximum canopy height is 44&nbsp;m. All stems ≥ 10&nbsp;cm diameter are measured, tagged and mapped. For additional site information, see <a href="https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/robson-creek-rainforest-supersite">Robson Creek Rainforest SuperSite</a></p> <p>In 2020 four acoustic recorders were set up to collect audio data continuously as part of the Australian Acoustic Observatory (A2O) project. Two recorders were placed in relatively wet habitats and two in relatively dry habitats.</p>

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    Wood block decomposition assessment at the Wombat Stringybark Eucalypt site is part of a global program looking at the influence of microbes and invertebrates on wood decay. A common protocol was developed exposing small (~400 cm3) pieces of a wood-substrate (untreated Pinus radiata) to the environment excluding and not-excluding macroinvertebrates (e.g. termites) by the use of a plastic mesh.

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    The Soil Moisture Integration and Prediction System (SMIPS) produces national extent daily estimates of volumetric soil moisture at a resolution of approximately 1km or 0.01 decimal degrees. SMIPS also generates an index of between 0-1 which approximates how full the 90cm metre soil moisture store is at a particular location and time. The SMIPS model itself consists of two linked soil moisture stores, a shallow quick responding 10cm upper store and a deeper, slower responding 80cm store. SMIPS is parameterised using physical properties from the <a href ='https://www.clw.csiro.au/aclep/soilandlandscapegrid/'>Soil and Landscape Grid of Australia </a>and takes a data model fusion approach for model forcing. Version 1.0 of the SMIPS model uses precipitation and potential evapotranspiration data from the Bureau of Meteorology’s <a href="http://www.bom.gov.au/water/landscape/assets/static/publications/AWRALv6_Model_Description_Report.pdf">AWRA Model</a>. In addition to version 1.0 of the model, an experimental version of the model is available for user testing. This version of the model uses precipitation data supplied by an experimental CSIRO daily rainfall surface generated using spatial data from the NASA Global Precipitation Mission as a base and enhanced using rainfall observations from the Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) rainfall gauge network, and various landscape covariates, processed using a machine learning approach. <br> To help increase model accuracy, the internal SMIPS model states are adjusted or ‘bumped’ by daily observational data from the European Space Agency’s Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission.

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    <p>This dataset contains audio files for TERN Whroo Dry Eucalypt SuperSite. Long-term recordings of the environment can be used to identify sound sources of interest, characterise the soundscape, aid in the assessment of fauna biodiversity, monitor temporal trends and track environmental changes.</p> <p>The site was established in 2011 in box woodland dominated by <em>Eucalyptus microcarpa</em> (grey box) and <em>Eucalyptus leucoxylon</em> (yellow gum). Smaller numbers of <em>Eucalyptus sideroxylon</em> (ironbark) and <em>Acacia pycnantha</em> (golden wattle) are also found on site. Elevation of the site is close to 165 m and mean annual precipitation from a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site measure 558 mm. Maximum temperatures range from 29.8°C (in January) to 12.6°C (in July), while minimum temperatures range from 14.2°C (in February) to 3.2°C (in July). Maximum temperatures vary on a seasonal basis by approximately 17.2°C and minimum temperatures by 11.0°C. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/whroo-dry-eucalypt-supersite/.</p> <p>In 2012 an acoustic recorder was set up to collect audio data for a total of 12 hours per day, split between six hours around dawn and six hours around dusk. The recording schedule aimed at capturing morning and evening bird choruses while minimizing memory and battery requirements. A long-term spectrogram has been generated for each audio file to aid in data exploration. The sensor also recorded temperature, minimum- maximum- and mean-sound pressure levels.</p> <p>Data are made available through the data link. For downloading large amount of data, please follow these instructions <a href="https://ternaus.atlassian.net/wiki/spaces/TERNSup/pages/2530148353/How+to+download+TERN+s+acoustic+data+in+bulk">How to download TERN's acoustic data in bulk</a></p>