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Environmental Monitoring

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    <p>Fixed cameras installed at the Daintree Rainforest SuperSite - Cape Tribulation provide a time series of fine scale data as a long-term record of vegetation structure and condition. This dense time series of phenocam images provides data for analysis of ecological responses to climate variability, and when consolidated across the entire terrestrial ecosystem research network, supports calibration and validation of satellite-derived remote sensing data, ensuring delivery of higher quality results for broader scale environmental monitoring products. </p><p> Phenocam images for the Cape Tribulation site are available from 2013 to 2016 and were usually captured hourly during daylight hours. </p><p> The site is located at the Daintree Rainforest Observatory in Lowland Complex Mesophyll Vine Forest near Cape Tribulation. Flux monitoring was established in 2001 with additional monitoring capabilities added over time. The site has more than 80 species including canopy trees belonging to the <em>Arecaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rutaceae, Meliaceae, Myristicaceae and Icacinaceae</em> families. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/daintree-rainforest-supersite/. </p><p> Other images collected at the site include photopoints, digital hemispheric photography (DHP) and ancilliary images of fauna and flora. </p>

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    <p>Fixed cameras installed at the Wombat Stringybark Eucalypt SuperSite provide a time series of fine scale data as a long-term record of vegetation structure and condition. This dense time series of phenocam images provides data for analysis of ecological responses to climate variability, and when consolidated across the entire terrestrial ecosystem research network, supports calibration and validation of satellite-derived remote sensing data, ensuring delivery of higher quality results for broader scale environmental monitoring products. </p> <p>Images are available from 2012 and are usually captured hourly during daylight hours. A new camera will be operational at the site from the first quarter of 2021.</p> <p> The site was established in 2010 in the Wombat State Forest in Central Victoria. The site is dry eucalypt forest with main species <em>Eucalyptus obliqua</em>, <em>Eucalyptus radiata</em> and <em>Euclayptus rubida</em>. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/wombat-stringybark-eucalypt-supersite/. </p><p> Other images collected at the site include photopoints, digital hemispherical photography (DHP) and ancilliary images of fauna and flora. </p>

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    Two fractional cover decile products, green cover and total cover, are currently produced from the historical timeseries of seasonal fractional cover images. These products compare, at the per-pixel level, the level of cover for the specific season of interest against the long term cover for that same season. For each pixel, all cover values for the relevant seasons within a baseline period (1988-2013) are classified into deciles. The cover value for the pixel in the season of interest is then classified according to the decile in which it falls. This product is based upon the JRSRP Fractional Cover 3.0 algorithm.

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    This product has been superseded and will not be processed from early 2023. Please find the updated version 3 of this product at <a href="https://portal.tern.org.au/metadata/24072"</a>. The seasonal dynamic reference cover method images are created using a modified version of the dynamic reference cover method developed by <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2012.02.021">Bastin et al (2012) </a>. This approach calculates a minimum ground cover image over all years to identify locations of most persistent ground cover in years with the lowest rainfall, then uses a moving window approach to calculate the difference between the window's central pixel and its surrounding reference pixels. The output is a difference image between the cover amount of a pixel's reference pixels and the actual cover at that pixel for the season being analysed. Negative values indicate pixels which have less cover than the reference pixels. <br> The main differences between this method and the original method are that this method uses seasonal fractional ground cover rather than the preceding ground cover index (GCI) and this method excludes cleared areas and certain landforms (undulating slopes), which are considered unsuitable for use as reference pixels.

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    Fire Frequency is derived from a time series of burnt area maps (derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)) and provides the average number of fires affecting an area in the given time period. It is the inverse of the fire return interval.

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    <p>Digital Cover Photography (DCP) upward-looking images are collected twice per year to capture vegetation cover within the core hectare at Cumberland Plain SuperSite. These images can be used to estimate Leaf area index (LAI), Crown Cover or Foliage Projective Cover (FPC). The images are captured at the times of estimated maximum and minimum LAI. In addition, DCP images have been taken on a monthly basis from 2018-2020 at a subset of sites in the core hectare, co-located with litterfall traps and under-canopy radiation sensors, to evaluate more detailed seasonal dynamics of LAI and other aspects of canopy growth. </p><p>The Cumberland Plain SuperSite was established in 2012 in endangered remnant Eucalyptus woodland and is subject to pressure from invasive weeds, altered fire regimes, urban development, conversion to agriculture and extreme climate events. However, the woodland is in excellent condition with the exception of edge effects. The site is located on the Hawkesbury Campus of the University of Western Sydney in New South Wales. For additional site information, see https://deims.org/a1bb29d8-197c-4181-90d8-76083afd44bb/ . </p><p>Other images collected at the site include photopoints, phenocam time-lapse images taken from fixed overstorey cameras, and ancillary images of fauna and flora. </p>

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    <p>Digital Hemispherical Photography (DHP) upward-looking images were collected annually to capture vegetation and crown cover at Daintree Rainforest SuperSite. These images are used to estimate Leaf Area Index (LAI). </p><p> The site is located at the Daintree Rainforest Observatory in Lowland Complex Mesophyll Vine Forest near Cape Tribulation. Flux monitoring was established in 2001 with additional monitoring capabilities added over time. The site has more than 80 species including canopy trees belonging to the <em>Arecaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rutaceae, Meliaceae, Myristicaceae and Icacinaceae</em> families. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/daintree-rainforest-supersite/. </p><p> Other images collected at the site include photopoints, phenocam time-lapse images taken from fixed under and overstorey cameras and ancilliary images of fauna and flora. </p>

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    High quality digital site reference images are captured for the core 1 hectare vegetation plot of the site on an annual basis to provide context for researchers to understand the general layout and vegetation of the study site, and as a visual reference to monitor any changes over time. Photopoints will be taken annually using the five point photopoint method. The set of images for each year usually consists of twenty images: four images taken at each corner of the plot facing each of the four cardinal points, and four images taken from the centre of the plot facing each corner. <br /><br /> The Warra Tall Eucalypt SuperSite was established in 2012 and is located in a stand of tall, mixed-aged <em>Eucalyptus obliqua</em> forest (1.5, 77 and &gt;250 years-old) with a rainforest / wet sclerophyll understorey and a dense man-fern (<em>Dicksonia antarctica</em>) ground-layer. The site experienced a fire in January 2019, which consumed the ground layer and killed a high proportion of the understorey trees but stimulated dense seedling regeneration. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/warra-tall-eucalypt-supersite/. <br /><br /> Other images collected at the site include digital hemispherical photography, phenocam time-lapse images taken from fixed under and overstorey cameras, panoramic landscape and ancillary images of fauna and flora.

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    The dataset consists of composited seasonal surface reflectance images (4 seasons per year) created from the full time series of Sentinel-2 imagery. The imagery has been composited over a season to produce imagery which is representative of that period, using techniques which will reduce contamination by cloud and other problems. This creates a regular time series of reflectance values which captures the variability at seasonal time scales. The benefits are a regular time series with minimal missing data or contamination from various sources of noise as well as data reduction. Each season has exactly one value (per band) for each pixel (or is null, i.e., missing), and the value for that season is assumed to be the representative of the whole season. The algorithm is based on the medoid (in reflectance space) over the time period (the medoid is a multi-dimensional analogue of the median), which is robust against extreme values. The seasonal surface reflectance is of the 6 TM-like bands (Blue, Green, Red, NIR, SWIR1, SWIR2), all at 10 m resolution. This dataset is intended to be a 10 m equivalent of the Landsat surface reflectance, using only Sentinel-2. The two 20m bands are resampled using cubic convolution. The pixel values are scaled reflectance, as 16-bit integers. To retrieve physical reflectance values, the pixel values should be multiplied by 0.0001.

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    Digital Cover Photography (DCP) upward-looking images will be collected up to twice per year to capture vegetation cover at Boyagin Wandoo Woodland SuperSite. These images can be used to estimate Leaf area index (LAI), Crown Cover or Foliage Projective Cover (FPC). The Boyagin Wandoo Woodland SuperSite was established in 2017 in Wandoo Woodland, which is surrounded by broadacre farming. About 80% of the overstorey cover is <em>Eucalyptus accedens</em>. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/boyagin-wandoo-woodland-supersite/ . Digital Hemispheric Photography (DHP) has also been collected at Boyagin SuperSite.