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EVAPOTRANSPIRATION

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    Evaporation, Transpiration, and Evapotranspiration Products for Australia based on the Maximum Entropy Production model (MEP). This record is an introduction of a method into the MEP algorithm of estimating the required model parameters over the entire continent of Australia through the use of pedotransfer function, soil properties and remotely sensed soil moisture data. The algorithm calculates the evaporation and transpiration over Australia on daily timescales at the 0.05 degree (5 km) resolution for 2003 – 2013. The MEP evapotranspiration (ET) estimates were validated using observed ET data from 20 Eddy Covariance (EC) flux towers across 8 land cover types in Australia and compared the MEP-ET at the EC flux towers with two other ET products over Australia; MOD16 and AWRA-L products. The MEP model outperformed the MOD16 and AWRA-L across the 20 EC flux sites, with average root mean square errors (RMSE), 8.21, 9.87 and 9.22 mm/8 days respectively. The average mean absolute error (MAE) for the MEP, MOD16 and AWRA-L were 6.21, 7.29 and 6.52 mm/8 days, the average correlations were 0.64, 0.57 and 0.61, respectively. The percentage bias of the MEP ET was within 20% of the observed ET at 12 of the 20 EC flux sites while the MOD16 and AWRA-L ET were within 20% of the observed ET at 4 and 10 sites respectively. The analysis showed that evaporation and transpiration contribute 38% and 62%, respectively, to the total ET across the study period which includes a significant part of the “millennium drought” period (2003 – 2009) in Australia. File naming conventions: E – Evaporation T – Transpiration ET – Evapotranspiration For the 8 day ET, Daily T and ET, the suffix nnn indicates day of year, for example: 001 for January 1, 145 for May 25 (leap year) or 26, etc. While for the daily E, the suffix is in the format mmdd (month,day) for example 0101 for January 1, 0525 for May 25.

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    This dataset consists of measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in a semi-arid mallee ecosystem north of the River Murray near Chowilla using eddy covariance techniques. <br /> <br /> The Calperum Chowilla site was established in July 2010 and is managed by the University of Adelaide (UA), coordinated by Prof Wayne Meyer and Prof David Chittleborough of the Landscape Futures Program as part of the Environment Institute. This is a former sheep grazing property that has been destocked and is being managed as a conservation area in this type of ecosystem. The landscape is flat with a series of low east–west sand dunes. The dunes are remnants of a previous dry era and are mostly now stabilised by mallee (multi-stemmed Eucalypt trees) and various shrubs. It is a semi-arid environment fringing the River Murray floodplains of the Riverland.<br />For additional site information, see http://www.landscapescience.org/. <br /><br /> This data is also available at http://data.ozflux.org.au .

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    This dataset consists of measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in tropical woodland using eddy covariance techniques.<br /><br /> The site was situated within a wetland that flooded seasonally. The principle vegetation was <em>Oryza rufipogon</em>, <em>Pseudoraphis spinescens</em> and <em>Eleocharis dulcis</em>. The elevation was approximately 4m, with a neighbouring Bureau of Meteorology station recording 1411mm mean annual precipitation.Maximum temperatures ranged from 31.3°C (in June and July) to 35.6°C (in October), while minimum temperatures ranged from 14.9°C (in July) to 23.9°C (in December and February). Maximum temperatures varied on a seasonal basis by approximately 4.3°C and minimum temperatures by 9.0°C.<br /> <br /> The instrument mast was 15m tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements are taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation were measured above the canopy. Soil heat fluxes were measured and soil moisture content was gathered using time domain reflectometry.<br /> Ancillary measurements taken at the site include LAI, leaf-scale physiological properties (gas exchange, leaf isotope ratios, N and chlorophyll concentrations), vegetation optical properties and soil physical properties. Airborne based remote sensing (Lidar and hyperspectral measurements) was carried out across the transect in September 2008. <br /><br />This data is also available at http://data.ozflux.org.au .

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    This dataset consists of measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in southeast of Emerald, Queensland, using eddy covariance techniques. <br /> <br /> The Arcturus greenhouse gas (GHG) monitoring station was established in July 2010, 48 km southeast of Emerald, Queensland, with flux tower measurements starting in June 2011 until early 2014. The station was part of a collaborative project between Geoscience Australia (GA) and CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research (CMAR). Elevation of the site was approximately 170m asl and mean annual precipitation was 572mm. The tower bordered 2 land use types split N-S: To the west lightly forested tussock grasslands; To the east crop lands, cycling through fallow periods.The instruments were installed on a square lattice tower with an adjustable pulley lever system to raise and lower the instrument arm. The tower was 5.6m tall with the instrument mast extending a further 1.1m above, totalling a height of 6.7m. Fluxes of heat, water vapour, methane and carbon dioxide were measured using the open-path eddy flux technique. Supplementary measurements above the canopy included temperature, humidity, windspeed, wind direction, rainfall, and the 4 components of net radiation. Soil heat flux, soil moisture and soil temperature measurements were also collected. <br /> For additional site information, see http://www.ozflux.org.au/monitoringsites/arcturus/index.html.<br /><br /> This data is also available at http://data.ozflux.org.au .

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.4.7) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br> <br>The site is classified as box woodland, dominated by two main eucalypt species: <em>Eucalyptus microcarpa</em> (grey box) and <em>Eucalyptus leucoxylon</em> (yellow gum). The site has an elevation of 165&nbsp;m. Mean annual precipitation measured by the nearby Bureau of Meteorology site is 558&nbsp;mm. Maximum temperatures range from 12.6&nbsp;°C (in July) to 29.8&nbsp;°C (in January), while minimum temperatures range from 3.2&nbsp;°C (in July) to 14.2&nbsp;°C (in February). Maximum temperatures vary on a seasonal basis by approximately 17.2&nbsp;°C and minimum temperatures by 11.0&nbsp;°C.</br> <br>The instrument mast is 36&nbsp;m tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements are taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation are measured above the canopy. Soil heat fluxes are measured and soil moisture content is gathered using time domain reflectometry.</br>

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    This dataset consists of measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in woody savanna using eddy covariance techniques. <br /> <br /> The ecosystem was dominated by <em>Eucalyptus tectifica</em> and <em>Planchonia careya </em>.<br /> <br /> Elevation of the site was close to 90m and mean annual precipitation at a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site was 1730mm. Maximum temperatures ranged from 31.4°C (in June) to 36.8°C (in October) while minimum temperatures range from 16.2°C (in July) to 25.1°C (in December). Maximum temperature varied seasonally by approximately 5.4°C and minimum temperatures varied by approximately 8.9°C.The instrument mast was 15 meters tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements were taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation were measured above the canopy. Soil heat fluxes are measured and soil moisture content was gathered using time domain reflectometry. <br /><br />This data is also available at http://data.ozflux.org.au .

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    This data release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in semi-arid eucalypt woodland using eddy covariance techniques. It been processed using PyFluxPro (v3.3.0) as described in Isaac et al. (2017), <a href="https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017">https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017</a>. PyFluxPro takes data recorded at the flux tower and process this data to a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER). For more information about the processing levels, see <a href="https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki">https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki</a>. <br /> <br /> The ecosystem was dominated by <em>Eucalyptus tectifica</em> and <em>Planchonia careya </em>.<br /> <br /> Elevation of the site was close to 90m and mean annual precipitation at a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site was 1730mm. Maximum temperatures ranged from 31.4°C (in June) to 36.8°C (in October) while minimum temperatures range from 16.2°C (in July) to 25.1°C (in December). Maximum temperature varied seasonally by approximately 5.4°C and minimum temperatures varied by approximately 8.9°C.The instrument mast was 15 meters tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements were taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation were measured above the canopy. Soil heat fluxes are measured and soil moisture content was gathered using time domain reflectometry. <br /><br />

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.5.0) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER). <br /> <br /> Located in a 5 km<sup>2</sup> block of relatively uniform open-forest savanna, the site is representative of high rainfall, frequently burnt tropical savanna. <br /><br /> Tropical savanna in Australia occupies 1.9 million km<sup>2</sup> across the north and given the extent of this biome, understanding biogeochemical cycles, impacts of fire on sequestration, vegetation and fauna is a national priority. In the NT, savanna ecosystems are largely intact in terms of tree cover, with only modest levels of land use change. Despite this, there is evidence of a loss of biodiversity, most likely due to shifts in fire regimes and a loss of patchiness in the landscape. Approximately 40 % of the savanna burn every year and understanding fire impacts on fauna and flora is essential for effective land management. <br /><br />

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.5.0) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br> <br>The ecosystem was dominated by <em>Eucalyptus tectifica</em> and <em>Planchonia careya</em>.</br> <br>Elevation of the site was close to 90&nbsp;m and mean annual precipitation at a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site was 1730&nbsp;mm. Maximum temperatures ranged from 31.4&nbsp;°C (in June) to 36.8&nbsp;°C (in October) while minimum temperatures range from 16.2&nbsp;°C (in July) to 25.1&nbsp;°C (in December). Maximum temperature varied seasonally by approximately 5.4&nbsp;°C and minimum temperatures varied by approximately 8.9&nbsp;°C. The instrument mast was 15&nbsp;m tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements were taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation were measured above the canopy. Soil heat fluxes are measured and soil moisture content was gathered using time domain reflectometry.</br>

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    This dataset consists of measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in dry sclerophyll forest at Cumberland Plain using eddy covariance techniques. The eddy covariance data collected in 2012-2013 includes measurements of turbulent fluxes but not the storage flux of CO2, and the micrometeorological data does not include soil moisture or soil temperature recordings. Beginning in January, 2014, a canopy profile system was implemented, allowing for calculation of the storage term, which is added to the turbulent flux of CO2 to calculate the net ecosystem exchange accurately in records from 2014 onwards. Prior to 2014, the net ecosystem exchange includes only the turbulent flux, and no soil moisture or soil temperature data are available.<br /> <br /> The Cumberland Plain flux station is located in a dry sclerophyll forest. The Cumberland Plain Woodland is now an endangered ecological community that encompasses distinct groupings of plants growing on clayey soils. The canopy is dominated by <em>Eucalyptus moluccana</em> and <em>Eucalyptus fibrosa</em>, which host an expanding population of mistletoe. Average canopy height is 23m, the elevation of the site is 20m and mean annual precipitation is 800mm. <br /> <br />Fluxes of water vapour, carbon dioxide and heat are quantified with the open-path eddy flux technique from a 30 m tall mast. Additional measurements above the canopy include temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave and longwave radiation and net, diffuse and direct radiation and the photochemical reflectance index. In addition, profiles of humidity and CO2 are measured at eight levels within the canopy, as well as measurements of soil moisture content, soil heat fluxes, soil temperature, and 10-hr fuel moisture dynamics. In addition, regular monitoring of understory species abundance, mistletoe infection, leaf area index and litterfall are also performed. <br />For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/cumberland-plain-supersite/ . <br /><br />This data is also available at http://data.ozflux.org.au .