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    The Cape Tribulation flux station is located in lowland tropical rainforest at the Daintree Rainforest Observatory located near Cape Tribulation, Queensland. The land is adjacent to the Daintree National Park which is part of the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area (WTWHA).The site is flanked to the west by coastal ranges rising to more than 1400m and to the east by the Coral Sea. The red clay loam podzolic soils are of metamorphic origin and have good drainage characteristics. The metamorphic rocks grade into granite boulders along Thompson Creek which runs along the northern boundary of the site. The crane site itself is gently sloping but the fetch area makes the site one of very complex terrain.The forest is classed as complex mesophyll vine forest (type 1a) and has an average canopy height of 25m. The dominant canopy trees belong to the Apocynaceae, Arecaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lauraceae, Meliaceae, Myristicaceae and Myrtaceae families. The forest is continuous for several kilometres around the crane except for an area 300m due east of the crane, which is regrowth forest.Annual average rainfall at the site is around 5180mm and is strongly seasonal, with 66% falling between January and April (wet season). Mean daily temperature ranges from 26.6°C in February to 21.2°C in July.Tropical Cyclone impactsTropical cyclones are a frequent occurrence in Far North Queensland. These severe tropical storm systems are natural phenomena which play a major role in determining the ecology of Queensland's tropical lowland rainforests. In March 1999 Tropical Cyclone Rona (Category 3) passed over the Cape Tribulation area causing widespread damage (gusts >170km/h). At the site several large trees fell, nearly all of the remaining trees were stripped of leaves and the lianas towers were torn to ground level.Australian Canopy CraneThe flux station is mounted at the 45m level on the tower of the crane.The canopy crane is a Liebherr 91 EC, freestanding construction tower crane. The crane is 48.5 metres tall with a radius of 55 metres enabling access to 1 hectare of rainforest.Fluxes of heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide are measured using the open-path eddy covariance technique. Supplementary measurements above the canopy include temperature, humidity, rainfall, total solar, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and net radiation.Heat flux, soil temperature and water content (time domain reflectometry) are measured in proximity to the flux station. Detailed biometric measurements are made at the crane site and all trees have regular (5 yearly) dbh measurements and canopy mapping carried. Monitoring bores (3) are located on site. Leaf litter measurements are carried out on a monthly basis.The Cape Tribulation flux station was established in March 2001 and is managed by James Cook University.

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    Ecosystem flux data from the Alice Springs site, Northern Territory.The Alice Springs Mulga flux station is located on Pine Hill cattle station, near Alice Springs in the Northern Territory.The woodland is characterised by a mulga (Acacia aneura) canopy, which is 6.5m tall on average. Elevation of the site is 606m above sea level, and the terrain is flat. Mean annual precipitation at the nearby (45km distant) Bureau of Meteorology station is 305.9mm but ranges between 100mm in 2009 to 750mm in 2010. Predominant wind directions are from the southeast and east.The extent of the woodland is 11km to the east of the flux station and 16km to the south. The soil is red sandy clay (50:50 sand:clay) overlying a 49m deep water table. Pine Hill Station is a functioning cattle station that has been in operation for longer than 50 years.The instrument mast is 13.7m tall. Fluxes of heat, water vapour and carbon are measured using the open-path eddy covariance technique at 11.6m. Supplementary measurements above the canopy include temperature and humidity (11.6m), windspeed and wind direction (9.25m), downwelling and upwelling shortwave and longwave radiation (12.2m). Precipitation is monitored in a canopy gap (2.5m). Supplementary measurements within and below the canopy include barometric pressure (1m), wind speed (2m, 4.25m and 6.5m), and temperature and humidity (2m, 4.25m and 6m).Belowground soil measurements are made in bare soil, mulga, and understory habitats and include ground heat flux (0.08m), soil temperature (0.02m – 0.06m) and soil moisture (0 – 0.1m, 0.1 – 0.3m, 0.6 – 0.8m and 1.0 – 1.2m).Ancillary measurements include soil water and carbon fluxes, leaf water potential, leaf gas exchange, stem basal area, stem growth, litter production, leaf area index, stem hydraulic conductance, and carbon and water stable isotope ratios.The site was established in September 2010 in conjunction with the Woodforde River NGCRT Superscience Site and is managed by the University of Technology Sydney.

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    The Sturt Plains flux station is located approximately 280km north of Tennant Creek, Northern Territory. It was established in August 2008 and is managed by Monash University external and Charles Darwin University. The Sturt Plains OzFlux Site is located on a low lying plain dominated by Mitchell Grass (gen. Astrebla). Elevation of the site is close to 250m and mean annual precipitation at a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site is 640mm.Maximum temperatures range from 28.4°C (in June/ July) to 39.1°C (in December), while minimum temperatures range from 11.2°C (in July) to 24.4°C (in December).The instrument mast is 5 meters tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements are taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall and net radiation are measured. Soil heat fluxes are measured and soil moisture content is gathered using time domain reflectometry.Ancillary measurements taken at the site include LAI, leaf-scale physiological properties (gas exchange, leaf isotope ratios, N and chlorophyll concentrations), vegetation optical properties and soil physical properties. Airborne based remote sensing (Lidar and hyperspectral measurements) was carried out across the transect in September 2008.

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    Ecosystem flux data from Emerald in central Queensland.The Arcturus greenhouse gas (GHG) monitoring station was established in July 2010 48 km southeast of Emerald, Queensland, with flux tower measurements starting in June 2011 until early 2014. The station was part of a collaborative project between Geoscience Australia (GA) and CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research (CMAR). Elevation of the site was approximately 170m asl and mean annual precipitation was 572mm. The tower borderered 2 land use types split N-S: To the west lightly forested tussock grasslands; To the east crop lands, cycling through fallow periods.The instruments were installed on a square lattice tower with an adjustable pulley lever system to raise and lower the instrument arm. The tower was 5.6m tall with the instrument mast extending a further 1.1m above, totalling a height of 6.7m. Fluxes of heat, water vapour, methane and carbon dioxide were measured using the open-path eddy flux technique. Supplementary measurements above the canopy included temperature, humidity, windspeed, wind direction, rainfall, and the 4 components of net radiation. Soil heat flux, soil moisture and soil temperature measurements were also collected.

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    The Dry River flux station is located approximately 89km south of Katherine, Northern Territory. The site was established in 2008 and is managed by The University of Western Australia and Charles Darwin University.The flux tower site is classified as open forest savanna. The overstory is co-dominated by tree species E. tetrodonta, E. dichromophloia, C. terminalis, Sorghum intrans, S. plumosum, Themeda triandra and Chrysopogon fallax, with canopy height averaging 12.3m.Elevation of the site is close to 175m and mean annual precipitation from a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site measures 895.3mm.Maximum temperatures range from 29.1°C (in June) to 37.6°C (in July), while minimum temperatures range from 14.6°C (in July) to 24.8°C (in November). Maximum temperatures vary seasonally by 8.5°C and minimum by 10.2°C.The instrument mast is 15 meters tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements are taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation are measured above the canopy. Soil heat fluxes are measured and soil moisture content is gathered using time domain reflectometry.Ancillary measurements taken at the site include LAI, leaf-scale physiological properties (gas exchange, leaf isotope ratios, N and chlorophyll concentrations), vegetation optical properties and soil physical properties. Airborne based remote sensing (Lidar and hyperspectral measurements) was carried out across the transect in September 2008.

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    The Riggs Creek flux station is located in Goulburn-Broken catchment in North-Eastern Victoria. The flux tower site is located within an area of dryland agriculture. The surrounding area is dominated by broadacre farming practices. The vegetation cover is predominantly pasture. Elevation of the site is close to 152m and mean annual precipitation at a nearby Bereau of Meteorology site measures 650mm.Maximum temperatures range from 12.3°C (in July) to 29.7°C (in February), while minimum temperatures range from 10.4°C (in July) to 26.8°C (in February).The instrument mast is 4 meters tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements are taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall and net radiation are measured. Soil heat fluxes are measured and soil moisture content is gathered using time domain reflectometry.

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    Ecosystem flux data from the Adelaide River site, Northern Territory.The Adelaide River flux station was located approximately 10.5km south east of Bachelor, Northern Territory. The flux tower site was classified as Savanna dominated by Eucalyptus tectifica and Planchonia careya.Elevation of the site was close to 90m and mean annual precipitation at a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site is 1730mm. Maximum temperatures range from 31.4°C (in June) to 36.8°C (in October) while minimum temperatures range from 16.2°C (in July) to 25.1°C (in December). Maximum temperature vary seasonally by approximately 5.4°C and minimum temperatures vary by approximately 8.9°C.The instrument mast was 15 meters tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements were taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation were measured above the canopy. Soil heat fluxes are measured and soil moisture content was gathered using time domain reflectometry.The site was established in November 2007 and was managed by Monash University and Charles Darwin University until it was decommissioned in May 2009.

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    The flux tower is located within the Yanco region of New South Wales, Australia. The site is located 37km south west of Narrandera, on the western plains of the Murrumbidgee Catchment. It was established in April 2012 and is managed by The University of Western Australia. This is a topographically flat area, primarily comprised of the following soil types: sandy loams, scattered clays, red brown earths, transitional red brown earth, sands over clay and deep sands. Stream valleys and layered soil and sedimentary materials are found across the landscape. The tower on site extends to 20m, however flux measurements are recorded from slightly lower than this. Mean annual precipitation from a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site measured 465 mm. Maximum temperatures ranged from 37.4°C (in January) to 16.6°C (in July), while minimum temperatures ranged from 29.0°C (in January) to 11.8°C (in July). Maximum temperatures varied on a seasonal basis by approximately 20.8°C and minimum temperatures by 17.2°C. The site is within a wider research area (60 x 60 km) that supports a network of OzNet stations, which have been in operation since late 2001 onwards.

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    The Whroo flux station is located approximately 45km south west of Shepparton, Victoria.It was established in October 2011 and is managed by The University of Western Australia.The flux tower site was classified as box woodland, dominated by two main Eucalypt species: Eucalyptus microcarpa (Grey Box) and Eucalyptus leucoxylon (Yellow Gum). Elevation of the site is close to 165 m and mean annual precipitation from a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site measured 558 mm. Maximum temperatures ranged from 29.8oC (in January) to 12.6oC (in July), while minimum temperatures ranged from 14.2oC (in February) to 3.2oC (in July). Maximum temperatures varied on a seasonal basis by approximately 17.2oC and minimum temperatures by 11.0oC.The instrument mast is 36m tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements are taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation were measured above the canopy. Soil heat fluxes were measured and soil moisture content was gathered using time domain reflectometry.

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    The Otway flux station was located at Narrinda South in south west Victoria, Australia (GPS coordinates: -38.5323, 142.8168; elevation: 54m).The pasture was grazed by dairy cattle with average grass height of 0.1m.Annual average rainfall at the site was around 800mm and was only moderately seasonal. Mean daily temperature ranged from 25°C in February to 12°C in July.The flux station was situated on a 10m tower. Fluxes of heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide were measured using the open-path eddy covariance technique. Supplementary measurements included temperature, humidity, rainfall, total solar, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and net radiation. Soil temperature and heat flux were also measured.The Otway flux station was established in February 2007 on private land at Nirranda South and managed by CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research staff as part of the Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Gas Technologies.