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    Ecosystem flux data from the Alice Springs site, Northern Territory.The Alice Springs Mulga flux station is located on Pine Hill cattle station, near Alice Springs in the Northern Territory.The woodland is characterised by a mulga (Acacia aneura) canopy, which is 6.5m tall on average. Elevation of the site is 606m above sea level, and the terrain is flat. Mean annual precipitation at the nearby (45km distant) Bureau of Meteorology station is 305.9mm but ranges between 100mm in 2009 to 750mm in 2010. Predominant wind directions are from the southeast and east.The extent of the woodland is 11km to the east of the flux station and 16km to the south. The soil is red sandy clay (50:50 sand:clay) overlying a 49m deep water table. Pine Hill Station is a functioning cattle station that has been in operation for longer than 50 years.The instrument mast is 13.7m tall. Fluxes of heat, water vapour and carbon are measured using the open-path eddy covariance technique at 11.6m. Supplementary measurements above the canopy include temperature and humidity (11.6m), windspeed and wind direction (9.25m), downwelling and upwelling shortwave and longwave radiation (12.2m). Precipitation is monitored in a canopy gap (2.5m). Supplementary measurements within and below the canopy include barometric pressure (1m), wind speed (2m, 4.25m and 6.5m), and temperature and humidity (2m, 4.25m and 6m).Belowground soil measurements are made in bare soil, mulga, and understory habitats and include ground heat flux (0.08m), soil temperature (0.02m – 0.06m) and soil moisture (0 – 0.1m, 0.1 – 0.3m, 0.6 – 0.8m and 1.0 – 1.2m).Ancillary measurements include soil water and carbon fluxes, leaf water potential, leaf gas exchange, stem basal area, stem growth, litter production, leaf area index, stem hydraulic conductance, and carbon and water stable isotope ratios.The site was established in September 2010 in conjunction with the Woodforde River NGCRT Superscience Site and is managed by the University of Technology Sydney.

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    The Sturt Plains flux station is located approximately 280km north of Tennant Creek, Northern Territory. It was established in August 2008 and is managed by Monash University external and Charles Darwin University. The Sturt Plains OzFlux Site is located on a low lying plain dominated by Mitchell Grass (gen. Astrebla). Elevation of the site is close to 250m and mean annual precipitation at a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site is 640mm.Maximum temperatures range from 28.4°C (in June/ July) to 39.1°C (in December), while minimum temperatures range from 11.2°C (in July) to 24.4°C (in December).The instrument mast is 5 meters tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements are taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall and net radiation are measured. Soil heat fluxes are measured and soil moisture content is gathered using time domain reflectometry.Ancillary measurements taken at the site include LAI, leaf-scale physiological properties (gas exchange, leaf isotope ratios, N and chlorophyll concentrations), vegetation optical properties and soil physical properties. Airborne based remote sensing (Lidar and hyperspectral measurements) was carried out across the transect in September 2008.

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    The Cape Tribulation flux station is located in lowland tropical rainforest at the Daintree Rainforest Observatory located near Cape Tribulation, Queensland. The land is adjacent to the Daintree National Park which is part of the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area (WTWHA).The site is flanked to the west by coastal ranges rising to more than 1400m and to the east by the Coral Sea. The red clay loam podzolic soils are of metamorphic origin and have good drainage characteristics. The metamorphic rocks grade into granite boulders along Thompson Creek which runs along the northern boundary of the site. The crane site itself is gently sloping but the fetch area makes the site one of very complex terrain.The forest is classed as complex mesophyll vine forest (type 1a) and has an average canopy height of 25m. The dominant canopy trees belong to the Apocynaceae, Arecaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lauraceae, Meliaceae, Myristicaceae and Myrtaceae families. The forest is continuous for several kilometres around the crane except for an area 300m due east of the crane, which is regrowth forest.Annual average rainfall at the site is around 5180mm and is strongly seasonal, with 66% falling between January and April (wet season). Mean daily temperature ranges from 26.6°C in February to 21.2°C in July.Tropical Cyclone impactsTropical cyclones are a frequent occurrence in Far North Queensland. These severe tropical storm systems are natural phenomena which play a major role in determining the ecology of Queensland's tropical lowland rainforests. In March 1999 Tropical Cyclone Rona (Category 3) passed over the Cape Tribulation area causing widespread damage (gusts >170km/h). At the site several large trees fell, nearly all of the remaining trees were stripped of leaves and the lianas towers were torn to ground level.Australian Canopy CraneThe flux station is mounted at the 45m level on the tower of the crane.The canopy crane is a Liebherr 91 EC, freestanding construction tower crane. The crane is 48.5 metres tall with a radius of 55 metres enabling access to 1 hectare of rainforest.Fluxes of heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide are measured using the open-path eddy covariance technique. Supplementary measurements above the canopy include temperature, humidity, rainfall, total solar, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and net radiation.Heat flux, soil temperature and water content (time domain reflectometry) are measured in proximity to the flux station. Detailed biometric measurements are made at the crane site and all trees have regular (5 yearly) dbh measurements and canopy mapping carried. Monitoring bores (3) are located on site. Leaf litter measurements are carried out on a monthly basis.The Cape Tribulation flux station was established in March 2001 and is managed by James Cook University.

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    The measurement site is located on Calperum Station. The site was established in July 2010 and is managed by the University of Adelaide (UA), coordinated by Prof Wayne Meyer and Prof David Chittleborough of the Landscape Futures Program as part of the Environment Institute.This is a former sheep grazing property that has been destocked and is being managed as a conservation area in this type of ecosystem. The landscape is flat with a series of low east–west sand dunes.The dunes are remnants of a previous dry era and are mostly now stabilised by mallee (multi-stemmed Eucalypt trees) and various shrubs. It is a semi-arid environment fringing the River Murray floodplains of the Riverland.

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    The Samford flux station is situated on an improved (Paspalum dilatum) pasture in the humid subtropical climatic region of coastal south-east Queensland. Located only 20km from the centre of Brisbane city, Samford Valley provides an ideal case study to examine the impact of urbanisation and land use change on ecosystem processes.The valley covers an area of some 82km2 and is drained in the southern regions by the Samford creek, which extends some 13km to Samford Village and into the South Pine River.The Samford Valley is historically a rural area experiencing intense urbanisation, with the population increasing almost 50% in the 10 years to 2006 (Morton Bay Regional Council, 2011). Within the Samford valley study region, the Samford Ecological Research Facility (SERF) not only represents a microcosm of current and historical land uses in the valley, but provides a unique opportunity to intensively study various aspects of ecosystem health in a secure, integrated and long term research capacity.Mean annual minimum and maximum temperatures at a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site are 13.1°C and 25.6°C respectively while average rainfall is 1102mm.The station was installed in June 2010 and forms part of the TERN South East Qld Peri-urban Supersite. The Supersite was established around the Samford Ecological Research Facility (SERF), managed by the Queensland University of Technology (QUT) with the aim of investigating the influence of urban development on ecosystem functions.The SERF supersite is jointly funded by ACEAS-TERN and the QUT.

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    The Daly River Pasture flux station was located 62km south west of Pine Creek, Northern Territory. It was established in November 2007 and managed by Monash University and Charles Darwin University until the site was destroyed by fire in September 2013. The flux tower site was identified as tropical pasture, and the vegetation was dominated by species Chamaecrista rotundifolia (Round-leaf cassia cv. Wynn), Digitaria milijiana (Jarra grass) and Aristida sp. standing at approximately 0.3m tall. The soil at the site was a mixture of red kandosol and deep sand. Elevation of the site was close to 70m and mean annual precipitation at a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site is 1250mm. Maximum temperatures ranged from 37.5°C (in October) to 31.2°C (in June), while minimum temperatures ranged from 12.6°C (in July) to 23.8°C (in January). Maximum temperatures varied on a seasonal basis between 6.3°C while minimum temperatures varied by 11.2°C. The instrument mast was 15 meters tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements were taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation were measured. Ancillary measurements taken at the site included LAI, leaf-scale physiological properties (gas exchange, leaf isotope ratios, N and chlorophyll concentrations), vegetation optical properties and soil physical properties. Airborne based remote sensing (Lidar and hyperspectral measurements) was carried out across the transect in September 2008.

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    The Daly River Uncleared flux tower site is located in the Douglas River Daly River Esplanade Conservation area, approximately 60 km south west of Pine Creek, Northern Territory (GPS coordinates: -14.1592, 131.3881).The flux tower site is classified as a Woodland savanna. The overstory is co dominated by tree species E. tetrodonta, C. latifolia, Terminalia grandiflora, Sorghum sp. and Heteropogon triticeus. Average canopy height measures 16.4 m. Elevation of the site is close to 110m and mean annual precipitation at a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site is 1170mm.Maximum temperatures range from 37.5°C (in October) to 31.2°C (in June), while minimum temperatures range from 12.6°C (in July) to 23.8°C (in January). Maximum temperatures range seasonally by 6.3°C and minimum temperatures by 11.2°C.The instrument mast is 23 meters tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements are taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation are measured above the canopy.Ancillary measurements taken at the site include LAI, leaf-scale physiological properties (gas exchange, leaf isotope ratios, N and chlorophyll concentrations), vegetation optical properties and soil physical properties. Airborne based remote sensing (Lidar and hyperspectral measurements) was carried out across the transect in September 2008.

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    Ecosystem flux data from the Warra Flux Tower, Tasmania.The flux tower is installed in a stand of tall, mixed-aged E. obliqua forest (77 and >250 years-old) with a rainforest understorey and a dense man-fern (Dicksonia antarctica) ground-layer, on a small flat of elevation 100 m adjacent to the Huon River.The climate of Warra is classified as temperate with a mild summer and no dry season. Mean annual precipitation is 1700 mm with a relatively uniform seasonal distribution. Summer temperatures peak in January (min. 8.4°C – max 19.2°C) with winter temperatures reaching their lowest in July (min 2.6°C – max 8.4°C).Eucalyptus obliqua forests dominate the vegetation below 650 m where they exist as fire-maintained communities. On fertile soils these forests attain mature heights in excess of 55m: the tallest E. obliqua within the LTER reaches a height of 90m. The understorey vegetation progresses from wet sclerophyll (dominated by Pomaderris apatala and Acacia dealbata) to rainforest (dominated by Nothofagus cunninghamii, Atherosperma moschatum, Eucryphia lucida and Phyllocladus aspleniifolius) with increasing time intervals between fire events.The site supports prodigous quantities of coarse woody debris as is characteristic of these fire-maintained eucalypt forests on fertile sites in southern Tasmania. The soil at the flux site is derived from Permian mudstone and has a gradational profile with a dark brown organic clayey silt topsoil overlying a yellow brown clay.The instruments are mounted at the top of an 80m tall guyed steel lattice tower. Supplementary measurements above the canopy include temperature, humidity, windspeed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation. An open-path gas analyser (EC150) was replaced by a closed-path gas analyser (EC155) at the end of Jan 2015.Soil moisture content is measured using Time Domain reflectometry, while soil heat fluxes and temperature are also measured.Micro-meteorology (CO2, H2O, energy fluxes), meteorology (temp, humidity, wind speed and direction, rainfall) taken from the Warra Flux Site from 2013 to late 2016. Data incomplete due to ongoing problems since changing the open-path IRGA to a closed path system (CPEC200) during 2015. Soil data (moisture, heat flux, temp) complete for time period.Data processed to L3 with OzFluxQC version 2.8.4

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    The Robson Creek flux station is located at the foothills of the Lamb Range in the Danbulla National Park, part of the Wet Tropics World Heritage forest estate. The site was established in 2013 and is managed by James Cook University.The tower is located to the NW of a 25Ha census plot established by CSIRO in 2012. The forest is classified as Regional Ecosystem (RE) 7.3.36a, complex mesophyll vine forest (Queensland Government 2006). There are 211 species in the 25 Ha plot, and average tree height is 28m, ranging from 23 to 44 m. Elevation of the site is 711m and mean annual precipitation is 2000mm. The upland rainforests of the Atherton Tablelands are some of the most biodiverse and carbon dense forests in Australia.The landform of the 25Ha plot which is in the dominant wind direction from the tower is moderately inclined with a low relief, a 30 m high ridge running north/south through the middle of the plot and a 40 m high ridge running north/south on the eastern edge of the plot.The instruments are mounted on a free standing tower at 40m. Fluxes of heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide are measured using the open-path eddy flux technique. Supplementary measurements above the canopy include temperature, humidity, windspeed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation.The Robson Creek site is part of the FNQ Rainforest SuperSite : the Robson Creek node, which is part of the TERN Australian SuperSite Network (ASN).

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    The Riggs Creek flux station is located in Goulburn-Broken catchment in North-Eastern Victoria. The flux tower site is located within an area of dryland agriculture. The surrounding area is dominated by broadacre farming practices. The vegetation cover is predominantly pasture. Elevation of the site is close to 152m and mean annual precipitation at a nearby Bereau of Meteorology site measures 650mm.Maximum temperatures range from 12.3°C (in July) to 29.7°C (in February), while minimum temperatures range from 10.4°C (in July) to 26.8°C (in February).The instrument mast is 4 meters tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements are taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall and net radiation are measured. Soil heat fluxes are measured and soil moisture content is gathered using time domain reflectometry.