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    The Howard Springs flux station is located in the Black Jungle Conservation Reserve in the Northern Territory south east of Darwin.The flux tower site is classified as an open woodland savanna. The overstory is co-dominated by tree species Eucalyptus miniata and Eucalyptus tentrodonata, and average tree height is 14–16m.Elevation of the site is close to 64m and mean annual precipitation is 1750mm. Maximum temperatures range from 30.4°C (in July) to 33.2°C (in November), while minimum temperatures range from 19.3°C (in July) to 25.4°C (in November). Therefore, the maximum and minimum range varies from 7°C (wet season) to 11°C (dry season).The instrument mast is 23m tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements are taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation are measured above the canopy.Soil heat fluxes are measured and soil moisture content is gathered using time domain reflectometry.

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    The Daly River Pasture flux station was located 62km south west of Pine Creek, Northern Territory. It was established in November 2007 and managed by Monash University and Charles Darwin University until the site was destroyed by fire in September 2013. The flux tower site was identified as tropical pasture, and the vegetation was dominated by species Chamaecrista rotundifolia (Round-leaf cassia cv. Wynn), Digitaria milijiana (Jarra grass) and Aristida sp. standing at approximately 0.3m tall. The soil at the site was a mixture of red kandosol and deep sand. Elevation of the site was close to 70m and mean annual precipitation at a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site is 1250mm. Maximum temperatures ranged from 37.5°C (in October) to 31.2°C (in June), while minimum temperatures ranged from 12.6°C (in July) to 23.8°C (in January). Maximum temperatures varied on a seasonal basis between 6.3°C while minimum temperatures varied by 11.2°C. The instrument mast was 15 meters tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements were taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation were measured. Ancillary measurements taken at the site included LAI, leaf-scale physiological properties (gas exchange, leaf isotope ratios, N and chlorophyll concentrations), vegetation optical properties and soil physical properties. Airborne based remote sensing (Lidar and hyperspectral measurements) was carried out across the transect in September 2008.

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    <p>This data set provides the photosynthetic pathways for 2428 species recorded across 541 plots surveyed by Australia’s Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) between 2011 and 2017 (inclusive). TERN survey plots are 1 ha (100 x 100 m) permanently established sites located in a homogeneous area of terrestrial vegetation. At each plot, TERN survey teams record vegetation composition and structural characteristics and collect a range of plant samples using a point-intercept method. Species were assigned a photosynthetic pathway using literature and carbon stable isotope analysis of bulk tissue collected by TERN at the survey plots. </p><p>The data set is comprised of two data tables and one data descriptor that defines the values in the two data tables. The first table contains a list of each species and its photosynthetic pathway. The second table includes a list of all the peer-reviewed sources used to create this data set. </p><p>This data set will be updated on an annual basis as TERN’s plot network expands and new information becomes available. </p>

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    Data from Wallaby Creek flux tower, Victoria.The Wallaby Creek flux station is located in Kinglake National Park, Victoria, South Eastern Australia. The area is assigned the IUCN Category II (National Parks) of the United Nations’ list of National Parks and protected areas, which means that park is primarily managed for ecosystem conservation.The site is approximately 45km north east of Melbourne, lies at an elevation of approximately 720 metres, and is located on the southern edge of the Hume Plateau. The catchment area is dominated by Eucalyptus Regnans or Mountain Ash, the world’s tallest flowering plant (angiosperm). Trees can reach heights of more than 90 metres growing in areas with high rainfall and fertile soil. These trees are well distributed throughout Victoria’s Central Highlands including the Otway Ranges and Strzlecki Ranges; they are also found in Tasmania. The site contains a chronosequence of (20, 80 and 300) stand ages that were established during fires occurring over the last 300 years.The tower itself is located within an old growth stand with individual trees as old as 300 years. Mountain ash forests are confined to the cool mountain regions with elevations ranging from 460 - 1100m and average rainfalls of 1100-2000mm. The forest is classed as a tall, wet sclerophyll forest, and the dominant Mountain Ash trees have an average canopy height of 75m. Below the dominant canopy lies a temperate rainforest understorey consisting of Pomaderris aspera and Olearia argophylla species, which are 10-18 metres tall. The lower layers of vegetation are dominated by tree ferns (Cyathea australis and Dicksonia antartica) and extensive tracts of rosette and rhizonic ferns (Polystichum proliferum and Blechnum wattsii) as well as Acacia trees.The catchment area contains a portion of the Mt Disappointment range, the Divide and the headwaters of Wallaby Creek and Silver Creek, and much of the slopes are characterised as flat to moderate.The major soil type within the forest is krasnozemic soils, which are friable red/brown, with high amounts of organic matter in the upper 20 – 30cm. However, the composition of krasnozemic soils is not homogenous, but rather a variation with altitude can be observed; lower altitudes inhabit grey-yellow podsolised soils compared to higher altitudes of the Kinglake and Hume plateau where the soil composition is krasnozemic loams. The clay content of these soils increases with depth until at least 200 cm deep, where after a transition soils contain rock fragments.The station was established in August 2005 by Monash University, operated in collaboration with Charles Darwin University and University of Alaska Faribanks. The original tower was destroyed in February 2009 by bushfires. Before the bushfire, the main mast stood at 110m. In March 2010, a replacement tower was established and sat at a height of 5m. Data from the site has been recorded from May 2010 onwards. As the tower is relatively new, the post fire instrumentation is currently not as diverse when compared to the pre fire instrumentation.The climate of the study area is classified as a cool, temperate zone, with the highest temperatures occurring during the summer months of December – February (13.8 – 22.5°C), whilst the coolest temperatures are experienced in May and August (4.7 – 9.2°C). Average annual precipitation is 1209mm, with a maximum rainfall occurring in June (Ashton, 2000). The study site experiences foggy conditions after sunset during autumn and winter.

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    The Ridgefield Flux Station is located approximately 12km west of Pingelly, near Perth, Western Australia. It was established in Jan 2015 and is managed by The University of Western Australia.The flux tower is located within an area of dryland agriculture. The surrounding area is dominated by broadacre farming practices. The vegetation cover is predominantly pasture.Elevation of the site is close to 330 m. Climate information comes from the nearby Pingelly BoM AWS station 010626 (1991 to 2016) and shows mean annual precipitation is approximately 445 mm with highest rainfall in June and July of 81 mm each month. Maximumum and minuimum annual rainfall is 775 and 217 mm, respectively. Maximum temperatures range from 31.9°C (in Jan) to 15.4°C (in July), while minimum temperatures range from 5.5°C (in July) to 16.0 °C (in Feb)

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    The Tumbarumba flux station is located in the Bago State Forest in south eastern New South Wales. It was established in 2000 and is managed by CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research.The forest is classified as wet sclerophyll, the dominant species is Eucalyptus delegatensis, and average tree height is 40m. Elevation of the site is 1200m and mean annual precipitation is 1000mm. The Bago and Maragle State Forests are adjacent to the south west slopes of southern New South Wales and the 48,400 ha of native forest have been managed for wood production for over 100 years.The instrument mast is 70m tall. Fluxes of heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide are measured using the open-path eddy flux technique. Supplementary measurements above the canopy include temperature, humidity, windspeed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation. Profiles of temperature, humidity and CO2 are measured at seven levels within the canopy. Soil moisture content is measured using Time Domain reflectometry, while soil heat fluxes and temperature are also measured. Hyperspectral radiometric measurements are being used to determine canopy leaf-level properties.The Tumbarumba flux station is supported by TERN and the DCCEE through the ACCSP.

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    Ecosystem flux data from the Alice Springs site, Northern Territory.The Alice Springs Mulga flux station is located on Pine Hill cattle station, near Alice Springs in the Northern Territory.The woodland is characterised by a mulga (Acacia aneura) canopy, which is 6.5m tall on average. Elevation of the site is 606m above sea level, and the terrain is flat. Mean annual precipitation at the nearby (45km distant) Bureau of Meteorology station is 305.9mm but ranges between 100mm in 2009 to 750mm in 2010. Predominant wind directions are from the southeast and east.The extent of the woodland is 11km to the east of the flux station and 16km to the south. The soil is red sandy clay (50:50 sand:clay) overlying a 49m deep water table. Pine Hill Station is a functioning cattle station that has been in operation for longer than 50 years.The instrument mast is 13.7m tall. Fluxes of heat, water vapour and carbon are measured using the open-path eddy covariance technique at 11.6m. Supplementary measurements above the canopy include temperature and humidity (11.6m), windspeed and wind direction (9.25m), downwelling and upwelling shortwave and longwave radiation (12.2m). Precipitation is monitored in a canopy gap (2.5m). Supplementary measurements within and below the canopy include barometric pressure (1m), wind speed (2m, 4.25m and 6.5m), and temperature and humidity (2m, 4.25m and 6m).Belowground soil measurements are made in bare soil, mulga, and understory habitats and include ground heat flux (0.08m), soil temperature (0.02m – 0.06m) and soil moisture (0 – 0.1m, 0.1 – 0.3m, 0.6 – 0.8m and 1.0 – 1.2m).Ancillary measurements include soil water and carbon fluxes, leaf water potential, leaf gas exchange, stem basal area, stem growth, litter production, leaf area index, stem hydraulic conductance, and carbon and water stable isotope ratios.The site was established in September 2010 in conjunction with the Woodforde River NGCRT Superscience Site and is managed by the University of Technology Sydney.

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    Ecosystem flux data from the Adelaide River site, Northern Territory.The Adelaide River flux station was located approximately 10.5km south east of Bachelor, Northern Territory. The flux tower site was classified as Savanna dominated by Eucalyptus tectifica and Planchonia careya.Elevation of the site was close to 90m and mean annual precipitation at a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site is 1730mm. Maximum temperatures range from 31.4°C (in June) to 36.8°C (in October) while minimum temperatures range from 16.2°C (in July) to 25.1°C (in December). Maximum temperature vary seasonally by approximately 5.4°C and minimum temperatures vary by approximately 8.9°C.The instrument mast was 15 meters tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements were taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation were measured above the canopy. Soil heat fluxes are measured and soil moisture content was gathered using time domain reflectometry.The site was established in November 2007 and was managed by Monash University and Charles Darwin University until it was decommissioned in May 2009.

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    <p>Digital Hemispherical Photography (DHP) upward-looking images were collected annually to capture vegetation and crown cover at Whroo Dry Eucalypt SuperSite. These images can be used to estimate Leaf area index (LAI), Crown Cover or Foliage Projective Cover (FPC). </p><p> The site was established in 2010 in box woodland dominated by <em>Eucalyptus microcarpa</em> (grey box) and <em>eucalyptus leucoxylon</em> (yellow gum). For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/whroo-dry-eucalypt-supersite/. </p><p> Other images collected at the site include photopoints, phenocam time-lapse images taken from fixed overstorey cameras and ancilliary images of fauna and flora. </p>

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    <p>Digital Hemispherical Photography (DHP) upward-looking images were collected annually to capture vegetation and crown cover at Daintree Rainforest SuperSite. These images are used to estimate Leaf Area Index (LAI). </p><p> The site is located in lowland complex mesophyll vine forest near Cape Tribulation. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/daintree-rainforest-supersite/ . </p><p> Other images collected at the site include photopoints, phenocam time-lapse images taken from fixed under and overstorey cameras and ancilliary images of fauna and flora. </p>