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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about the Cumberland State Forest, compartments 8b, 9a and 9b, NSW, Australia. </br><br> Pre-European reference-analogue vegetation: the site was originally a wet sclerophyll forest found on Wianamatta group Ashfield Shale. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1788: Area managed by indigenous Darug people</li> <li>1788-1824: Region explored - un-modified native forest blue gum/ironbark on shale</li> <li>1825: Parcel selected by shepherd</li> <li>1826-1907: Grazing cattle on native pastures</li> <li>1860: Tree cover likely to have been thinned - selective logging</li> <li>1908: Commenced clearing patches of trees for improved pasture, chooks, orchards</li> <li>1909-1937: Managed as improved pasture for grazing</li> <li>1937-38: Purchased by NSW Forestry Commission</li> <li>1941-42: Area cleared of remaining native forest trees</li> <li>1946-73: Area managed for education and demonstration - regenerating native forest</li> <li>1974-84: Area increasing managed for recreation - regenerating native forest</li> <li>1985-2012: Area managed for recreation - regenerating native forest.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Mulligans Flat Nature Reserve. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: the site was originally woodlands on the deeper soils of the lower slopes and flats (<em>Eucalyptus blakelyi</em> and <em>Eucalyptus melliodora</em>) (McIntyre et al. 2010). </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1819: Area managed by indigenous Ngunnawal people</li> <li>1826: Sheep grazing with shepherds commenced</li> <li>1860: Fences constructed - continuous stocking with sheep commenced</li> <li>1920: Fallen timber collected for firewood started</li> <li>1994: Mulligans Flat Nature Reserve established</li> <li>1995: Continuous stocking with sheep grazing ceased</li> <li>1995: Collection of firewood ceased</li> <li>1996: Kangaroo population begins to rapidly increase</li> <li>2006: Predator proof fence completed</li> <li>2008: Commenced annual removal of pest species of plants and animals</li> <li>2010: Commenced annual kangaroo cull.</li></ul></br>

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    The dataset comprises of a biological and a spatial component. Biological data: This was collated from several sources, collected over the period 2000-2009. Data are lists of presence-absence of 215 native plant species (i.e., exotic species removed) from 76 seasonal wetlands (size range 0.5 - 35 ha) located on the Fleurieu Peninsula, South Australia (centred on latitude 35.5 °S). After data were collated into a single dataset, sampling bias was removed to create a dataset of near-complete census wetlands. Spatial data: For each of the 76 wetlands a small amount of spatial data is also provided, i.e., area, centroids, catchment etc. The dataset could be of interest for any typical community data analysis (e.g. beta diversity, similarity, assembly)- provided only native wetland plant species are of interest. Data presented here were used to model extinction risk, species-area relationships, occupancy distributions and so on.

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about the Taroom Shire site in Queensland, Australia. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: the site was originally a brigalow, <em>Acacia harpophylla</em>, mixed community associated with several overstorey species, including <em>Eucalyptus coolabah</em>, <em>E. cambageana</em>, <em>Casuarina cristata</em>, a range of understorey species, grassy woodlands and open forests. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1860: Area used for sheep grazing by shepherds</li> <li>1870: Permanent fences established</li> <li>1875: Start of continuous or set stocking with sheep</li> <li>1880: Incursion of prickly pear started</li> <li>1935: Prickly pear had been destroyed</li> <li>1929-1932: Land clearance through ringbarking</li> <li>1929-1932: Gradual increase in cattle numbers decline in sheep</li> <li>1940-1955: Manual clearing of brigalow with axes issues with regrowth</li> <li>1960-62: Brigalow pulled mechanically and soil ploughed</li> <li>1962: Soil ploughed and sown to buffel grass pasture</li> <li>1962-65: Continuous grazing with cattle on buffel grass pasture</li> <li>1966-75: Soil ploughed and sown to wheat annually – cattle graze stubble</li> <li>1976: Soil ploughed and sown to buffel grass pasture</li> <li>1976-2000: Continuous grazing with cattle on buffel grass pasture</li> <li>2001-10: Soil ploughed and sown to wheat annually – cattle graze stubble.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Goorooyarroo Nature Reserve Site 2, ACT, Australia </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: The site was originally woodlands on the deeper soils of the lower slopes and flats (<em>Eucalyptus blakelyi</em> and <em>Eucalyptus melliodora</em>) (McIntrye et al 2010). </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1819: Area managed by indigenous Ngunnawal people</li> <li>1826: Sheep grazing with shepherds commenced</li> <li>1860: Fences constructed - continuous stocking with sheep commenced</li> <li>1905: Area used for sheep grazing - continuous /set stocking</li> <li>1920: Fallen timber collected for firewood started</li> <li>1961: Mature trees on the site were ring barked to promote pasture grasses</li> <li>1973: Dead and fallen trees felled for fire wood</li> <li>1979: Bushfire burns through the area</li> <li>1994: Mulligans Flat Nature Reserve established</li> <li>1995: Continuous stocking with sheep grazing ceased</li> <li>1995: Collection of firewood ceased</li> <li>1995: Pasture improvement ceased</li> <li>1996: Kangaroo population begins to rapidly increase</li> <li>2006: Roo proof fence completed</li> <li>2006: Commenced annual removal of pest species of plants and animals</li> <li>2010: Commenced annual Kangaroo cull.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Organ Pipes National Park, Volcanic Plains Bioregion, Victoria. </br><br> Pre-European reference-analogue vegetation: Treeless basalt plain predominantly grassland dominated by Kangaroo Grass <em>Themeda triandra</em> with an array of inter-tussock species. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1830: Indigenous people manage the area</li> <li>1835: Sheep grazing commenced (shepherds)</li> <li>1851: Alienated from the Crown as freehold and fenced</li> <li>1851-1965: Area managed for dairying, an orchard and cropping and grazing modified pastures</li> <li>1965: Agricultural production abandoned</li> <li>1965-1986: Area minimally managed</li> <li>1972: Organ Pipes National Park declared</li> <li>1986-1992: Commenced species re-introduced site with supplemental plantings. Area managed to control weed and further incursions</li> <li>1989-2003: Repeated monitoring. Area lightly grazed by rabbits and macropods</li> <li>1993: Site burnt [prescribed fire]; supplemental re-vegetation with indigenous local species </li> <li>1995: Site was burnt [prescribed fire]</li> <li>1997: Site was burnt [prescribed fire] followed by drought</li> <li>2003: Ceased monitoring and enhancement to the site</li> <li>2004-10: Minimal intervention.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about the Cumberland State Forest, Old Abandoned Arboretum site, NSW, Australia. </br><br> Pre-European reference-analogue vegetation: The Cumberland State Forest is part of the Blue Gum High Forest (Daniel Connolly pers comm). It is a tall wet sclerophyll forest found on Wianamatta group Ashfield Shale. Blue Gum High Forest is dominated by Sydney blue gum (<em>Eucalyptus saligna</em>), blackbutt (<em>E. pilularis</em>), and turpentine (<em>Syncarpia glomulifera</em>) with a number of other eucalypts occurring patchily. A sparse open cover of small trees includes a variety of sclerophyllous and mesophyllous species. The ground layer is variable in composition and cover; including ferny, grassy or herbaceous and/or vines and climbers. The characteristics of the ground cover are related to the topgraphic position. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1788- Area managed by indigenous Darug people</li> <li>1788-1824: Region explored, un-modified native forest blue gum/ironbark on shale</li> <li>1825: Parcel selected by Mr Shepherd</li> <li>1860: Tree cover likely to have been thinned - selective logging for fences and housing</li> <li>1826-1907: Grazing stock on native pastures</li> <li>1908: Land parcel cleared and sown to improved pasture, and evidence of chicken farm and fruit orchards</li> <li>1909-1937: Managed as improved pasture and grazing</li> <li>1937-38: Purchased by NSW Forestry Commission</li> <li>1941-42: Remaining native forest trees cleared to establish an arboretum</li> <li>1943-45: Arboretum planted as a future urban working forest</li> <li>1946-73: Arboretum managed for education and demonstration - infilling regrowth native forest observed</li> <li>1974-84: Arboretum increasing managed for recreation - infilling regrowth native forest observed</li> <li>1985-2012: Area managed for recreation (ex-arboretum and regrowth native forest).</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Goorooyarroo Nature Reserve Site 3. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: The site was originally woodlands on the deeper soils of the lower slopes and flats (<em>Eucalyptus blakelyi</em> and <em>Eucalyptus melliodora</em>) (McIntyre et al., 2010). </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1819: Area managed by indigenous Ngunnawal people</li> <li>1826: Sheep grazing with shepherds commenced</li> <li>1860: Fences constructed - continuous stocking with sheep commenced in large paddocks</li> <li>1920-1925: Large old and dead trees felled for firewood for Canberra market</li> <li>1961: 50 acre paddock fenced as a future lambing paddock</li> <li>1962-1965: Remaining trees ringbarked, left to stand to dry out and sold as firewood</li> <li>1966-1978: Paddock converted to improved pasture. Repeated resown and fertilized</li> <li>1979-2004: Holding paddock for lambing ewes</li> <li>1994: Mulligans Flat Nature Reserve established</li> <li>2004: Continuous stocking with sheep grazing ceased</li> <li>2005: Kangaroo proof fence erected</li> <li>2008: Kangaroo population begins to rapidly increase</li> <li>2008: Commenced annual removal of pest species of plants and animals</li> <li>2009: Introduced large logs to the site from off the Reserve</li> <li>2010: Commenced annual kangaroo cull.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Big Scrub, Tintenbar site. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: The site was originally lowland subtropical rainforest on basalt-derived and alluvial soils below 250&nbsp;m asl and further than 2&nbsp;km from the coast. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1788: Indigenous land management - Goori people</li> <li>1823-25: Explorers Oxley followed by Rous traversed the area</li> <li>1842: Cedar getters ‘moved in’</li> <li>1870: Portion or survey plan prepared for the Tintenbar property</li> <li>1880: Camphor was planted as a shade tree in Lismore 1880s along streets</li> <li>1885: Brush had been largely selected and slightly cleared</li> <li>1900: Clearing done with brush hooks. Small trees were cut down with an axe and large trees were cut down using a cross-cut saw. Brush and fallen timber was burnt</li> <li>1900: Basalt rock removed from paddocks and placed around borders as field stone fencing, Paddock cleared of floaters so it could be ploughed</li> <li>1901: Aggressive pasture grasses established. Initially this was <em>Paspalum</em></li> <li>1901-1978: Dairying and pasture improvement - mainly Kikuyu and fertiliser added</li> <li>1968: Observed incursions of camphor in creeks and gullies but not removed or controlled</li> <li>1979: Changed from dairying to beef cattle production</li> <li>1980-87: Cattle removed - destocked</li> <li>1981-87: Observed incursions of weeds into the former dairy pasture including lantana, barna or elephant (<em>Pennisetum purpureum</em>) grass and tobacco bush and some camphor but not removed or controlled</li> <li>1988: Commenced agisting cattle</li> <li>1990-93: Agisted horses and cattle</li> <li>1993: Ceased agisting cattle and horses</li> <li>1994-2011: Dense stands of camphor left unchecked.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Belconnen Naval Transmitter Station in ACT, Australia. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: the original vegetation for the site Belconnen Naval Transmitter Station was a temperate grassland in an ecological community dominated by native species of perennial tussock grasses. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>Up to late 1820s the area was managed by indigenous Ngunnawal people</li> <li>1830s: Area first grazed by sheep and cattle with the aid of shepherds</li> <li>1860: Fences were established and continuous stocking commenced</li> <li>1900: Patches of woodland areas on higher ground were partly cleared</li> <li>1900-39: High likelihood of moderate to heavy grazing pressure due to sheep and cattle</li> <li>1940-1993: Area managed as a naval transmission station</li> <li>1940-92: Area managed for sheep grazing under continuous grazing</li> <li>1970: Secure people and kangaroo proof fence established</li> <li>1993: Sheep removed from the site</li> <li>1995: mowers used to manage the grass</li> <li>1997-2008: Kangaroo population increased to unacceptable levels</li> <li>2006: Naval transmission towers demolished, area continued to have a secure people proof fence</li> <li>2008: Kangaroo population culled to reduce grazing pressure</li> <li>2011: Site managed for nature conservation values.</li></ul></br>