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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Goorooyarroo Nature Reserve Site 3. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: The site was originally woodlands on the deeper soils of the lower slopes and flats (<em>Eucalyptus blakelyi</em> and <em>Eucalyptus melliodora</em>) (McIntyre et al., 2010). </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1819: Area managed by indigenous Ngunnawal people</li> <li>1826: Sheep grazing with shepherds commenced</li> <li>1860: Fences constructed - continuous stocking with sheep commenced in large paddocks</li> <li>1920-1925: Large old and dead trees felled for firewood for Canberra market</li> <li>1961: 50 acre paddock fenced as a future lambing paddock</li> <li>1962-1965: Remaining trees ringbarked, left to stand to dry out and sold as firewood</li> <li>1966-1978: Paddock converted to improved pasture. Repeated resown and fertilized</li> <li>1979-2004: Holding paddock for lambing ewes</li> <li>1994: Mulligans Flat Nature Reserve established</li> <li>2004: Continuous stocking with sheep grazing ceased</li> <li>2005: Kangaroo proof fence erected</li> <li>2008: Kangaroo population begins to rapidly increase</li> <li>2008: Commenced annual removal of pest species of plants and animals</li> <li>2009: Introduced large logs to the site from off the Reserve</li> <li>2010: Commenced annual kangaroo cull.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details for the Wooroonooran Nature Refuge. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: the original vegetation for the site was a complex mesophyll vine forest on basaltic red loams on wet uplands, altitude 720&nbsp;m with 4.421&nbsp;mm rainfall (av annual records for the period 1993-2011, source: Peter Stanton). </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1800: Indigenous management of mesophyll rainforest by Ngadyan people</li> <li>1924: Start of selective logging of high value timber species</li> <li>1930: Finish of selective logging of high value timber species - intent to convert rainforest to pasture</li> <li>1931: Start of land clearing of the previously logged forest - intent to convert rainforest to pasture</li> <li>1938: End of land clearing of the previously logged forest - forest trash burnt</li> <li>1939: Start of intensive soil and pasture management - soil not ploughed - aggressive pasture grasses sown into ash bed</li> <li>1940: Start of grazing - pasture for dairying</li> <li>1958: End of grazing, planted pasture for dairying. Pastures infertile. All livestock removed</li> <li>1959: Start of land abandonment and minimal use</li> <li>1983: Commenced large scale spraying and poisoning and physical removal of lantana</li> <li>1993: Regrowth rainforest (complex mesophyll vine forest) in gullies and on lower slopes - 50% of lot 2</li> <li>1994: Continued large scale spraying and poisoning of lantana and carpet grass</li> <li>2003: Site formally gazetted as Wooroonooran Nature Refuge by WTMA</li> <li>2011: Site continues to be manage for multiple values: timber reserve, biodiversity and habitat values.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Belconnen Naval Transmitter Station in ACT, Australia. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: the original vegetation for the site Belconnen Naval Transmitter Station was a temperate grassland in an ecological community dominated by native species of perennial tussock grasses. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>Up to late 1820s the area was managed by indigenous Ngunnawal people</li> <li>1830s: Area first grazed by sheep and cattle with the aid of shepherds</li> <li>1860: Fences were established and continuous stocking commenced</li> <li>1900: Patches of woodland areas on higher ground were partly cleared</li> <li>1900-39: High likelihood of moderate to heavy grazing pressure due to sheep and cattle</li> <li>1940-1993: Area managed as a naval transmission station</li> <li>1940-92: Area managed for sheep grazing under continuous grazing</li> <li>1970: Secure people and kangaroo proof fence established</li> <li>1993: Sheep removed from the site</li> <li>1995: mowers used to manage the grass</li> <li>1997-2008: Kangaroo population increased to unacceptable levels</li> <li>2006: Naval transmission towers demolished, area continued to have a secure people proof fence</li> <li>2008: Kangaroo population culled to reduce grazing pressure</li> <li>2011: Site managed for nature conservation values.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Talaheni Horse Paddock, Murrambatman, NSW. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: The site was originally a <em>Themeda sp.</em> grassy woodland. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1830: Grazing of native vegetation - shepherds</li> <li>1900-1961: Fencing and continuous grazing with sheep</li> <li>1905: Overstorey thinned by ringbarking</li> <li>1906-1920: Continuous removal of suckers and regrowth</li> <li>1962: Remaining larger trees pushed over with a bull dozer</li> <li>1962-1974: Continuous grazing with cattle</li> <li>1968-1978: Four applications of superphosphate and exotic pasture species</li> <li>1975-1982: Continuous grazing with horses</li> <li>1983-1984: Continuous grazing with sheep</li> <li>1985: Continuous grazing ceased</li> <li>1986: Commenced rehabilitation</li> <li>1987-2008: Area lightly grazed using rotational grazing with sheep</li> <li>2008-2010: All stock removed - increasing high numbers of kangaroos.</li></ul></br>

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    <ul><li>1. Restoration of degraded landscapes has become increasingly important for conservation of species and their habitats owing to habitat destruction and rapid environmental change. An increasing focus for restoration activity are old-fields as agricultural land abandonment has expanded in the developed world. Studies examining outcomes of ecological restoration predominantly focus on vegetation structure and plant diversity, and sometimes vertebrate fauna. Fewer studies have systematically investigated effects of restoration efforts on soil chemical and biophysical condition or ground-dwelling invertebrates and there is limited synthesis of these data. </li> <li>2. This dataset comprised data for a global meta-analysis of published studies to assess the effects on soil properties and invertebrates of restoring land that was previously used for agriculture. Studies were included if the site had been either cropped or grazed, restoration was either active (planting) or passive (abandonment, fencing) and if adequate data on soil chemical or physical properties or invertebrate assemblages were reported for restored, control (cropped/grazed) or reference sites.</li> <li>3. The dataset includes 42 studies, published between 1994 and 2019 that met the inclusion criteria, covering 16 countries across all continents. More studies assessed passive restoration approaches than active planting, and native species were more commonly planted than exotic species.</li></ul>

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    Knowledge on the spatial distribution and inter-specific association patterns in tree species is essential in plant ecology to understand ecological mechanisms and dynamic process operating in spatial distribution of a tree population in a plant community. We measured and compiled datasets on three tropical tree species from a moist semi deciduous forest. We used the software Programita to perform univariate and bivariate point pattern analysis by Ripley's L-function. These datasets can be used to inform on possibilities of interaction of these species in forest stands. These datasets can be also used to access the capacity of each tree of <i>Mansonia altissima</i> var. <i>altissima</i> A. Chev. to develop and grow or its exclusion probability within a plant community. <i>Mansonia altissima</i> A. Chev. is a plant species represented by only one-population in a moist semi-deciduous forest in Republic of Benin. Our project aims to understand its ecology for restoration and conservation purposes within its natural habitat as well as other habitats inside of its distribution range.

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    We established a common garden experiment within a 238 ha restoration site owned and managed by the South Australian Water Corporation (SA Water), near the township of Clarendon (-35.0882°S, 138.6236°E). We grew ca. 1500 seedlings sourced from one local and two non-local provenances of <i>Eucalyptus leucoxylon</i> to test whether local provenancing was appropriate. The three provenances spanned an aridity gradient, with the local provenance sourced from the most mesic area and the distant from the most arid. We explored the effect of provenance on four fitness proxies after 15 months, including survival, above-ground height, susceptibility to insect herbivory, and pathogen related stress.

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about site in Blundells Flat, ex-coupe 424, ACT. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: The site was originally a brown barrel (<em>Eucalyptus fastigata</em>), growing in association with ribbon gum (<em>E. viminalis</em>). </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1788: Unmodified and intact tall open eucalypt forest; forest unaffected</li> <li>1915: Water catchment area declared for Canberra - forest unaffected</li> <li>1955: Commenced selective logging of mainly brown barrel (<em>E. fastigata</em>)</li> <li>1956: Clear-felled remaining wet sclerophyll forest and pushed timber into windrows with a bulldozer</li> <li>1958: Felled timber burnt in February</li> <li>1958: 1<sup>st</sup> rotation radiata or Monterey pine (<em>Pinus radiata</em>) planted by hand</li> <li>1960: Controlled competing regrowth native vegetation, manually with axes, slashers, or hoes</li> <li>1986: 1<sup>st</sup> rotation <em>P. radiata</em> harvested with crawler tractors</li> <li>1987: Coupe was treated using a crusher roller weighing 17 tonnes towed by a D8 bulldozer</li> <li>1988: Coupe was ripped and mounded. 2<sup>nd</sup> rotation <em>P. radiata</em> seedlings planted by hand with a mattock. Fertilized every seedling by hand</li> <li>1990: Controlled competing regrowth native vegetation using brush hooks e.g. eucalypts, acacia and 1<sup>st</sup> rotation pine seedlings</li> <li>2002: 14 year old 2<sup>nd</sup> rotation was thinned and pruned to around 450 stems / ha. Thinnings were left on the ground to decay</li> <li>2003: Area burnt by severe wildfire killed all pines. Sterile rye grass was sown across the coupe using light aircraft to stabilise erodible soils. Killed pines and native regrowth pushed over and windrowed with a bulldozer</li> <li>2004: Windrowed timber was burnt. Site declared minimal use - rehabilitation</li> <li>2005: Contractors were engaged to manually remove pine wildlings</li> <li>2005-2012: Site left to rehabilitate.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Wirilda-Callitris-Eucalyptus mallee in South Australia, Australia. </br><br> Pre-European reference-analogue vegetation: <em>Callitris</em> (<em>Callitris preissii</em>) - <em>Eucalyptus</em> mallee (<em>E. odorata</em> and <em>E. porosa</em>) low open woodland. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1750-1849: Meru indigenous people manage the area</li> <li>1838: Explorers traversed the area</li> <li>1850: Pastoralists with shepherds, grazing sheep</li> <li>1883: Land selected, boundary fencing established</li> <li>1883-1900: Continuous grazing with sheep and cattle grazing native vegetation</li> <li>1890: Heavy timber cutting for Callington and Kanmantoo mines, sheep grazing</li> <li>1900: Area ploughed and sown to black oats</li> <li>1901-72: Continuous grazing with sheep and cattle grazing modified and native pastures</li> <li>1950: Commenced fertilising pastures using super - applied aerially several times in the 1960’s</li> <li>1972: Ceased applications of super fertilizer, ceased grazing all cattle removed</li> <li>1974: Area purchased by the Lay family</li> <li>1974-1981: Planted about 25,000 tubestock using local endemic species, mainly trees and shrubs</li> <li>1974-2012: Monitoring and recording of seedling survival and regeneration</li> <li>1974-1985, 2006-12: Major effort in controlling weeds and feral animals</li> <li>1982: Area gazetted as a Heritage Agreement</li> <li>1983-2003: All further revegetation efforts by direct seeding techniques such as “niche seeding”</li> <li>1992: Massive summer rains (a 1:430 year event) with major erosion along watercourses and regeneration of most species</li> <li>2004: Neighbour starts fire, which burns out 25% of area</li> <li>2006: Area gains a 10 year package of funding under the “bushbids” biodiversity stewardship programme</li> <li>2007: <em>Monadenia</em> weed orchid and bridal creeper begin to invade area.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about the Cumberland State Forest, Old Abandoned Arboretum site, NSW, Australia. </br><br> Pre-European reference-analogue vegetation: The Cumberland State Forest is part of the Blue Gum High Forest (Daniel Connolly pers comm). It is a tall wet sclerophyll forest found on Wianamatta group Ashfield Shale. Blue Gum High Forest is dominated by Sydney blue gum (<em>Eucalyptus saligna</em>), blackbutt (<em>E. pilularis</em>), and turpentine (<em>Syncarpia glomulifera</em>) with a number of other eucalypts occurring patchily. A sparse open cover of small trees includes a variety of sclerophyllous and mesophyllous species. The ground layer is variable in composition and cover; including ferny, grassy or herbaceous and/or vines and climbers. The characteristics of the ground cover are related to the topgraphic position. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1788- Area managed by indigenous Darug people</li> <li>1788-1824: Region explored, un-modified native forest blue gum/ironbark on shale</li> <li>1825: Parcel selected by Mr Shepherd</li> <li>1860: Tree cover likely to have been thinned - selective logging for fences and housing</li> <li>1826-1907: Grazing stock on native pastures</li> <li>1908: Land parcel cleared and sown to improved pasture, and evidence of chicken farm and fruit orchards</li> <li>1909-1937: Managed as improved pasture and grazing</li> <li>1937-38: Purchased by NSW Forestry Commission</li> <li>1941-42: Remaining native forest trees cleared to establish an arboretum</li> <li>1943-45: Arboretum planted as a future urban working forest</li> <li>1946-73: Arboretum managed for education and demonstration - infilling regrowth native forest observed</li> <li>1974-84: Arboretum increasing managed for recreation - infilling regrowth native forest observed</li> <li>1985-2012: Area managed for recreation (ex-arboretum and regrowth native forest).</li></ul></br>