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    This is a collated plant survey data from the Fleurieu Peninsula wetlands (version.2). There is a biological and a spatial component to the dataset. [1] Biological data: This was collated from several sources, collected over the period 2000-2009 and used in the analyses for the paper <i>Diversity patterns of seasonal wetland plant communities mainly driven by rare terrestrial species</i> (Deane et al - Biodiversity and Conservation, DOI: <em>10.1007/s10531-016-1139-1</em>). Biological data were pre-processed to remove sampling bias (the method is described in the paper). Data are presence-absence of 215 native plant species (i.e., exotic species removed) from 76 seasonal wetlands (size range 0.5 - 35 ha) located on the Fleurieu Peninsula, South Australia (centred on latitude 35.5 °S). [2] Spatial data: For each of the 76 wetlands a small amount of spatial data is also provided. Area, centroids, elevation and catchment. The data could be of interest for any typical community data analysis (e.g. beta diversity, similarity, assembly), provided only native wetland plant species were of interest. Data were used to model extinction risk, species-area relationships, occupancy distributions and so on.

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    There are presence absence records for vegetation and matched hydrological data from 687 1 x 1 m quadrats recorded from 11 wetlands and wetland complexes (28 sampled hydrological gradients (referred to as transects) across the upper and lower southeast of South Australia. Plant data were collected in spring 2013. Hydrological monitoring data at each site consisted of continuous (6 hourly) surface water level data from a state agency monitoring network. Observed water levels at the monitoring instrument on the day of monitoring were related to the observed depth of water at each quadrat, assuming a flat, level water surface and obtain a datum for each quadrat relative to the monitoring instrument. The continuous monitoring record was then used to calculate a range of different hydrological predictors indicating the variation at each quadrat. The hydrological dataset provided are the univariate summary statistics recording different aspects of surface water dynamics for each quadrat. Hydrological predictors (sum-exceedance value, hydroperiod and maximum inundation depth) were calculated for annual and seasonal periods in the three-years prior to plant data collection. See metadata and relevant publication for additional details on calculation. Hydrological predictors for each quadrat are provided in a single matrix of sites by predictors, with relevant location details for the quadrat (xy coordinates, site, transect). Included is a single electrical conductivity class for each transect (ordinal variable - low moderate, high - see metadata). Vegetation data are provided as a single matrix (quadrats x plant functional group) showing presence absence of each functional group in each quadrat. There is also a lookup table giving the assignment of each plant species to a plant functional group.

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    The dataset comprises of a biological and a spatial component. Biological data: This was collated from several sources, collected over the period 2000-2009. Data are lists of presence-absence of 215 native plant species (i.e., exotic species removed) from 76 seasonal wetlands (size range 0.5 - 35 ha) located on the Fleurieu Peninsula, South Australia (centred on latitude 35.5 °S). After data were collated into a single dataset, sampling bias was removed to create a dataset of near-complete census wetlands. Spatial data: For each of the 76 wetlands a small amount of spatial data is also provided, i.e., area, centroids, catchment etc. The dataset could be of interest for any typical community data analysis (e.g. beta diversity, similarity, assembly)- provided only native wetland plant species are of interest. Data presented here were used to model extinction risk, species-area relationships, occupancy distributions and so on.

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    This dataset contains the effect of stress and herbivory on the establishment of alternate provenances of a foundation tree species. This data relates to plant fitness and could be used for more broader studies in this area. We established a common garden experiment within a 238 ha restoration site owned and managed by the South Australian Water Corporation (SA Water), near the township of Clarendon (-35.0882°S, 138.6236°E). We grew ca.1500 seedlings sourced from one local and two non-local provenances of <i>Eucalyptus leucoxylon</i> to test whether local provenancing was appropriate. The three provenances spanned an aridity gradient, with the local provenance sourced from the most mesic area and the distant provenance sourced from the most arid. We explored the effect of provenance on four fitness proxies after 15 months, including survival, above-ground height, susceptibility to insect herbivory, and pathogen related stress.

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    The dataset comprises data from the first survey of ~24,000 large trees (>10 cm diameter at breast height; DBH) within 48 1 ha forest monitoring plots established across Australia between 2011 and 2015. Data includes: [1] Site identifiers (ID and Site Name); [2] Plot Establishment Dates; [3] Tree identifiers and descriptors (ID, Species, Status, Growth Stage, Crown Class); [4] Tree measurements (Diameter, Point of Measurement, Height, Location); [5] Comments and ancillary information; and [6] List of Metagenomic Sample Identifiers.

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    We generated a total of 2,313,977 16S archaeal raw reads across the 36 replicates (64,277 ± 23,335 SD per replicate). A total of 2,299,955 archaeal sequences (63,888 ± 23,473 SD per replicate) and 1,937 archaeal OTUs (54 ± 20 SD per replicate) remained for further analysis after quality filtering. The OTU data provide information on archaeal flux at an active restoration site at Mt Bold, a water catchment reserve of the Mt Lofty Ranges in South Australia, through a stagger of years and can be used accordingly.

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    We present a High-throughput eDNA dataset of fungi to track functional recovery in ecological restoration in the form of an OTU raw data matrix. We generated a total of 4,993,144 ITS fungal raw reads (118,884 ± 42,210 SD per replicate) across the 42 replicates. A total of 4,955,680 fungal sequences (117,430 ± 42,164 SD per replicate) remained for further analysis after quality filtering. The OTU data provide information on fungal flux at this restoration site through a stagger of years and can be used accordingly.

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    The dataset contains biological data collected 2005, 2012 as part of the Tanami Regional Biodiversity Monitoring (Tanami RBM) program. The Tanami RBM program uses 89 sites across the Tanami region, central-west Northern Territory. At these sites, flora and fauna are surveyed during the late-dry (usually November-December) or late-wet (usually February-March) seasons. Each site comprises a 200 m x 300 m survey plot from which the data are recorded using various survey methods: site descriptions, vegetation transects, bird surveys, small vertebrate trapping, and tracking surveys. This dataset contains the data from eight surveys undertaken between 2005 and 2012: six in the late-dry and two in the late-wet seasons. The precision of site locations has been reduced to 0.1 decimal degree, which is approximately 10 km at the study region. This denaturing is because some sites contain threatened and/or sensitive species that might be at risk from collection or disturbance. The dataset contains species information from vegetation surveys and fauna species captures and observations. The data can be used to: [1] Review the outcomes of the survey methodologies [2] Presence data of the species recorded [3] Impacts of mining on the region's flora and fauna e.g. what is the spatial and temporal impact of mining activities on biota? [4] Conservation and biodiversity e.g. what are the spatial and temporal trends in the occurrence of key/threatened species? How do land units/systems change over time?

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    This data set is a compilation of biomass sampling of 15,054 individual measurements of 274 tree and shrub species across 826 sites in the Australian mainland, reported in 94 studies between 1950 and 2015. Various methods were used across sites, but all involved destructive harvests of individual trees or shrubs and measuring the fresh weight of above-ground biomass. Sub-sampling was used to determine moisture content, after which dry weight of the above-ground biomass was calculated. See publication for details: "Keryn I. Paul, John Larmour, Alison Specht, Ayalsew Zerihun, Peter Ritson, Stephen H. Roxburgh, Stan Sochacki, Tom Lewis, Craig V.M. Barton, Jacqueline R. England, Michael Battaglia, Anthony O'Grady, Elizabeth Pinkard, Grahame Applegate, Justin Jonson, Kim Brooksbank, Rob Sudmeyer, Dan Wildy, Kelvin D. Montagu, Matt Bradford, Don Butler, Trevor Hobbs, Testing the generality of below-ground biomass allometry across plant functional types, Forest Ecology and Management. 432: 102-114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2018.08.043. Paul, K.I., Larmour, J., Specht, A., Zerihun, A., Ritson, P., Roxburgh, S.H., Sochacki, S., Lewis, T., Barton, C.V.M., England, J.R., Battaglia, M., O’Grady, A., Pinkard, E., Applegate, G., Jonson, J., Brooksbank, K., Sudmeyer, R., Wildy, D., Montagu, K.D., Bradford, M., Butler, D., Hobbs, T., 2019. Testing the generality of below-ground biomass allometry across plant functional types. Forest Ecology and Management 432, 102–114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2018.08.043

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    The TREND (PSRF)- Terrestrial Ecosystems project initiated a landscape-scale monitoring transect along the Adelaide Geosyncline region in southern Australia, initially spanning approximately 550 km. The aim was to examine spatial drivers of species composition and to isolate the influence of climate on whole vegetation community composition and therefore inform on-going monitoring of the impact of climate change. Specific questions were: 1. What are the most important spatial drivers of species and phylogenetic composition along landscape-scale environmental gradients? 2. Can the answer to Question 1. inform selection of suitable spatial analogues for climate change? 3. How can a framework for assessing spatial drivers be used to monitor and interpret shifts in species composition due to climate change? The dataset consists of site and species records (see attachments) for plots established along the Adelaide Geosyncline for the TREND project. Data consist of vascular plant species composition (presence-abundance/absence) within 900m<sup>2</sup> plots plus site data, including aspect and soil properties. Data have been used to analyze changes in composition with geographic and environmental differences and as a baseline for monitoring.