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Agricultural land management

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    The project brought together a group of Australian researchers and managers with a broad range of expertise to identify current and emerging economies (‘drivers’) affecting regional agricultural landscapes and to suggest beneficial transformational changes for successful adaptation. A key challenge in these landscapes is altering how we use the land for ongoing, viable production while increasing native biodiversity. The group:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>identified the major historical influences on Australian land use and the current social and economic drivers that are likely to increase in the future</li> <li>assessed the condition of five agro-climatic regions (adapted from Williams et al., 2002 and Hobbs and McIntyre, 2005) using a Delphi method. A small (4-person) expert panel scored the impact of historical and future scenarios on ten sustainability indicators (biodiversity, water, soil, social capital, built capital, food/fibre, carbon, energy, minerals and cultural). Five regions were chosen: Southern Mediterranean, Northern tropical, Central arid, North-east subtropical, and South-east temperate. This was an iterative process whereby scores were revisited until internal consistency between regions, scenarios, and indicators was achieved</li> <li>made projections of regional condition under the four global Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) based on van Vuuren et al. (2011)</li> <li>developed recommendations about land use and management, institutional and policy arrangements and social processes that will assist adaptation towards a values-rich vision of Australia in 2100.</li></ul>

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    This dataset comprises spatially and temporally dynamic estimates of the monthly latent heat flux (λE) and sensible heat flux (H) for all of Australia. The available energy (A, being net radiation [Rn] less the gound heat flux [G]) can be obtained by adding the λE and H datasets provided. Energy variables have been provided as hydrological equivalent units of depth, normalised to daily rates (mm/d). TERN OzFlux Surface Energy Balance (SEB) data were used to scale MODIS-based covariates of surface temperature less air temperature (Ts – Ta) and Rn using a Spatial and Temporal General Linear Model (ST-GLM) to third order. The ST-GLM SEB model was implemented across all of Australia on a 0.005° spatial grid (~ 500 m) on a monthly timestep from March 2000 through June 2023. Coefficients of the model were determined from the OzFlux network of eddy covariance flux tower data. Three flux tower sites were used to independently validate the accuracy of the model, being Calperum, SA, Howard Springs, NT, and Tumbarumba, NSW. The mean absolute difference (MAD) for λE, H and A was estimated as: 0.37, 0.39 and 0.34&nbsp;mm/d, respectively. The relative errors determined by the MAD percentage (MADP) for λE, H, and A were estimated to be: 16%, 26%, and 9%, respectively. This dataset represents a new pathway for operational regional- to global-scale estimation of dynamic SEB variables.

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    <br>Hermitage Research Station (28&deg; 12’ S, 152&deg; 06’ E) situated near Warwick, is the site of a 33 year study of carbon cycling, storage and emissions in a southern Queensland winter cereal system. Mean annual temperature at the site is 17.5&deg;C and mean annual rainfall is 685&nbsp;mm. The soil is a Vertosol containing 65% clay, 24% silt, and 11% sand. Treatments at the trial included stubble burnt (SB), stubble retained (SR), conventional tillage (CT), no tillage (NT), nitrogen fertiliser added (NF) and no nitrogen fertiliser added (N0). It has provided guidance to farmers on optimising nitrogen use efficiency through fine tuning rates to meet crop need, e.g. delivering nitrogen when it is needed by the crop possibly using split applications and coated fertilisers with slower nutrient release profiles. Sourcing nitrogen from pulse crop and pasture was also studied as an option for meeting nitrogen needs with lower emissions and reduced cost.</br>

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    This dataset contains Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) multispectral, pansharpened and long-wave infrared (LWIR) orthomosaics of the Samford Ecological Research Facility (SERF), Queensland University of Technology. SERF is located in the Samford Valley, west of Brisbane, Australia and is the usual place for flight testing and evaluation of new equipment. The QUT's Research Engineering Facility team operated DJI Matrice 300RTK (M300) with latest MicaSense Altum-PT (5-band multispectral sensor, LWIR, panchromatic channels and downlight sensor). The images were geo-referenced using the onboard GNSS in M300 and the D-RTK 2 base station and also georectified with 5 ground control points collected by Emlid Reach RS GNSS receivers. In the processing workflow in Agisoft Metashape, the multispectral orthomosaics were orthorectified and pan-sharpened. Dense point clouds were used to generate multispectral (GSD 3.4 cm/px), panchromatic and multispectral pansharpened (GSD 1.6 cm/pixel) and LWIR (GSD 21 cm/pixel) orthomosaics.

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    This is Version 1 of the Soil Organic Carbon Fractions product of the Soil and Landscape Grid of Australia.<br></br> <p>The Soil and Landscape Grid of Australia has produced a range of digital soil attribute products. This product contains six digital soil attribute maps for each of three depth intervals, 0-5&nbsp;cm, 5-15&nbsp;cm, 15-30&nbsp;cm. These depths are consistent with the specifications of the GlobalSoilMap.net project - <a href="https://esoil.io/TERNLandscapes/Public/Pages/SLGA/Resources/GlobalSoilMap_specifications_december_2015_2.pdf">GlobalSoilMaps</a>. The digital soil attribute maps are in raster format at a resolution of 3 arc sec (~90 x 90&nbsp;m pixels).</p> <p>These maps are generated using Digital Soil Mapping methods.</p> <ul style="list-style-type: disc;"><li>Attribute Definition: Soil Organic Carbon Fractions : mineral-associated organic carbon (MAOC), particulate organic carbon (POC) and pyrogenic organic carbon (PyOC) (Units: Various);</li> <li>Period (temporal coverage; approximately): 1950-2022;</li> <li>Spatial resolution: 3 arc seconds (approximately 90&nbsp;m);</li> <li>Total number of gridded maps for this attribute: 18;</li> <li>Number of pixels with coverage per layer: 2007M (49200 * 40800);</li> <li>Total size before compression: about 8GB;</li> <li>Total size after compression: about 4GB;</li> <li>Format: Cloud Optimised GeoTIFF.</li>

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    This is Version 1 of the Soil Bacteria and Fungi Beta Diversity product of the Soil and Landscape Grid of Australia.<br></br> The Soil and Landscape Grid of Australia has produced a range of digital soil attribute products. These products provide estimates of the Beta Diversity of soil fungi and bacteria. The digital soil attribute maps are in raster format at a resolution of 3 arc sec (~90 x 90&nbsp;m pixels).<br></br> These maps are generated using Digital Soil Mapping (DSM) methods. Detailed information about the Australian DSM an be found at <a href="https://aussoilsdsm.esoil.io/home">AusSoilsDSM</a><br /><br /> <ul style="list-style-type: disc;"><li>Attribute Definition: Soil Bacteria and Fungi Beta Diversity (Units: NA);</li> <li>Period (temporal coverage; approximately): 1950-2022;</li> <li>Spatial resolution: 3 arc seconds (approximately 90&nbsp;m);</li> <li>Total number of gridded maps for this attribute: 6;</li> </li>Number of pixels with coverage per layer: 2007M (49200 * 40800);</li> <li>Total size before compression: about 8GB;</li> <li>Total size after compression: about 4GB;</li> <li>Format: Cloud Optimised GeoTIFF.</li></ul>

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    This is Version 2 of the Australian Available Volumetric Water Capacity (AWC) product of the Soil and Landscape Grid of Australia.<br></br> The map gives a modelled estimate of the spatial distribution of AWC soil hydraulic property in soils across Australia.<br></br> <p>The Soil and Landscape Grid of Australia has produced a range of digital soil attribute products. Each product contains six digital soil attribute maps, and their upper and lower confidence limits, representing the soil attribute at six depths: 0-5&nbsp;cm, 5-15&nbsp;cm, 15-30&nbsp;cm, 30-60&nbsp;cm, 60-100&nbsp;cm and 100-200&nbsp;cm. These depths are consistent with the specifications of the GlobalSoilMap.net project - <a href="https://esoil.io/TERNLandscapes/Public/Pages/SLGA/Resources/GlobalSoilMap_specifications_december_2015_2.pdf">GlobalSoilMaps</a>. The digital soil attribute maps are in raster format at a resolution of 3 arc sec (~90 x 90&nbsp;m pixels).<br> Detailed information about the Soil and Landscape Grid of Australia can be found at - <a href="https://esoil.io/TERNLandscapes/Public/Pages/SLGA/index.html">SLGA</a><br /><br /> <ul style="list-style-type: disc;"><li>Attribute Definition: Available Volumetric Water Capacity (Units: percent);</li> <li>Period (temporal coverage; approximately): 1950-2021;</li> <li>Spatial resolution: 3 arc seconds (approx. 90m);</li> <li>Total number of gridded maps for this attribute: 18;</li> <li>Number of pixels with coverage per layer: 2007M (49200 * 40800);</li> <li>Target data standard: GlobalSoilMap specifications;</li> <li>Format: Cloud Optimised GeoTIFF</li></ul>

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    This is Version 1 of the Australian Soil Cation Exchange Capacity product of the Soil and Landscape Grid of Australia.<br></br> The map gives a modelled estimate of the spatial distribution of cation exchange capacity in soils across Australia.<br></br> <p>The Soil and Landscape Grid of Australia has produced a range of digital soil attribute products. Each product contains six digital soil attribute maps, and their upper and lower confidence limits, representing the soil attribute at six depths: 0-5&nbsp;cm, 5-15&nbsp;cm, 15-30&nbsp;cm, 30-60&nbsp;cm, 60-100&nbsp;cm and 100-200&nbsp;cm. These depths are consistent with the specifications of the GlobalSoilMap.net project - <a href="https://esoil.io/TERNLandscapes/Public/Pages/SLGA/Resources/GlobalSoilMap_specifications_december_2015_2.pdf">GlobalSoilMaps</a>. The digital soil attribute maps are in raster format at a resolution of 3 arc sec (~90 x 90&nbsp;m pixels).</p> Detailed information about the Soil and Landscape Grid of Australia can be found at - <a href="https://esoil.io/TERNLandscapes/Public/Pages/SLGA/index.html">SLGA</a><br /><br /> <ul style="list-style-type: disc;"><li>Attribute Definition: Cation Exchange Capacity (Units: meq/100g);</li> <li>Period (temporal coverage; approximately): 1970-2022;</li> <li>Spatial resolution: 3 arc seconds (approx 90&nbsp;m);</li> <li>Total number of gridded maps for this attribute: 18;</li> <li>Number of pixels with coverage per layer: 2007M (49200 * 40800);</li> <li>Target data standard: GlobalSoilMap specifications;</li> <li>Format: Cloud Optimised GeoTIFF.</li>

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    This is Version 2 of the Australian Soil Bulk Density - Whole Earth product of the Soil and Landscape Grid of Australia.<br></br> It supersedes the Release 1 product that can be found at <a href="https://doi.org/10.4225/08/546EE212B0048">https://doi.org/10.4225/08/546EE212B0048</a><br></br> The map gives a modelled estimate of the spatial distribution of Bulk Density in soils across Australia.<br></br> <p>The Soil and Landscape Grid of Australia has produced a range of digital soil attribute products. Each product contains six digital soil attribute maps, and their upper and lower confidence limits, representing the soil attribute at six depths: 0-5&nbsp;cm, 5-15&nbsp;cm, 15-30&nbsp;cm, 30-60&nbsp;cm, 60-100&nbsp;cm and 100-200&nbsp;cm. These depths are consistent with the specifications of the GlobalSoilMap.net project - <a href="https://esoil.io/TERNLandscapes/Public/Pages/SLGA/Resources/GlobalSoilMap_specifications_december_2015_2.pdf">GlobalSoilMaps</a>. The digital soil attribute maps are in raster format at a resolution of 3 arc sec (~90 x 90&nbsp;m pixels).<br></br> Detailed information about the Soil and Landscape Grid of Australia can be found at - <a href="https://esoil.io/TERNLandscapes/Public/Pages/SLGA/index.html">SLGA</a><br><br> <ul style="list-style-type: disc;"><li>Attribute Definition: Bulk Density of the whole soil (including coarse fragments) in mass per unit volume by a method equivalent to the core method;</li> <li>Units: g/cm3;</li> <li>Period (temporal coverage; approximately): 1950-2021;</li> <li>Spatial resolution: 3 arc seconds (approx 90&nbsp;m);</li> <li>Total number of gridded maps for this attribute: 18;</li> <li>Number of pixels with coverage per layer: 2007M (49200 * 40800);</li> <li>Data license : Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC BY);</li> <li>Target data standard: GlobalSoilMap specifications;</li> <li>Format: Cloud Optimised GeoTIFF.</li></ul>

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    This is Version 2 of the Australian Soil Clay Content product of the Soil and Landscape Grid of Australia.<br><br> It supersedes the Release 1 product that can be found at <a href="https://doi.org/10.4225/08/546EEE35164BF">https://doi.org/10.4225/08/546EEE35164BF</a>.<br></br> The map gives a modelled estimate of the spatial distribution of clay in soils across Australia.<br></br> <p>The Soil and Landscape Grid of Australia has produced a range of digital soil attribute products. Each product contains six digital soil attribute maps, and their upper and lower confidence limits, representing the soil attribute at six depths: 0-5&nbsp;cm, 5-15&nbsp;cm, 15-30&nbsp;cm, 30-60&nbsp;cm, 60-100&nbsp;cm and 100-200&nbsp;cm. These depths are consistent with the specifications of the GlobalSoilMap.net project - <a href="https://esoil.io/TERNLandscapes/Public/Pages/SLGA/Resources/GlobalSoilMap_specifications_december_2015_2.pdf">GlobalSoilMaps</a>. The digital soil attribute maps are in raster format at a resolution of 3 arc sec (~90 x 90&nbsp;m pixels).<br> Detailed information about the Soil and Landscape Grid of Australia can be found at - <a href="https://esoil.io/TERNLandscapes/Public/Pages/SLGA/index.html">SLGA</a><br /><br /> <ul style="list-style-type: disc;"><li>Attribute Definition: 2&nbsp;μm mass fraction of the less than 2&nbsp;mm soil material determined using the pipette method;</li> <li>Units: %;</li> <li>Period (temporal coverage; approximately): 1950-2021;</li> <li>Spatial resolution: 3 arc seconds (approx 90&nbsp;m);</li> <li>Total number of gridded maps for this attribute: 18;</li> <li>Number of pixels with coverage per layer: 2007M (49200 * 40800);</li> <li>Data license : Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC BY);</li> <li>Target data standard: GlobalSoilMap specifications;</li> <li>Format: Cloud Optimised GeoTIFF.</li></ul>