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surface upward mole flux of carbon dioxide

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    This data release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in semi-arid eucalypt woodland using eddy covariance techniques. It been processed using PyFluxPro (v3.3.3) as described in Isaac et al. (2017), <a href="https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017">https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017</a>. PyFluxPro takes data recorded at the flux tower and process this data to a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER). For more information about the processing levels, see <a href="https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki">https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki</a>. <br /> <br /> The site is located on a low lying plain dominated by Mitchell Grass (<em>gen. Astrebla</em>). Elevation of the site is close to 250m and mean annual precipitation at a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site is 640mm. Maximum temperatures range from 28.4°C (in June/ July) to 39.1°C (in December), while minimum temperatures range from 11.2°C (in July) to 24.4°C (in December).<br /><br />The instrument mast is 5 meters tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements are taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall and net radiation are measured. Soil heat fluxes are measured and soil moisture content is gathered using time domain reflectometry.<br /><br />Ancillary measurements taken at the site include LAI, leaf-scale physiological properties (gas exchange, leaf isotope ratios, N and chlorophyll concentrations), vegetation optical properties and soil physical properties. Airborne based remote sensing (Lidar and hyperspectral measurements) was carried out across the transect in September 2008. Biomass Harvest - mean live biomass: 0.00 gm-2 (standard error: 0.00) , mean standing dead biomass: 163.42 gm-2 (standard error: 16.73), mean litter biomass: 148.99 gm-2 (standard error: 21.32), total mean biomass: 312.40 gm-2 (standard error: 30.80), Soil- Clay: 14.47% (volume <1µm), Silt: 51.23% (volume <1µm), Sand: 34.30% (volume <1µm), Sand (>1 µm): 1.02% (total weight).<br /><br />

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    This data release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in semi-arid eucalypt woodland using eddy covariance techniques. It been processed using PyFluxPro (v3.3.3) as described in Isaac et al. (2017), <a href="https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017">https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017</a>. PyFluxPro takes data recorded at the flux tower and process this data to a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER). For more information about the processing levels, see <a href="https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki">https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki </a>. <br /> <br /> The forest is classed as a tall, wet sclerophyll forest, and the dominant <em>Eucalyptus Regnans</em> or Mountain Ash trees have an average canopy height of 75m. The site contains a chronosequence of (20, 80 and 300) stand ages that were established during fires occurring over the last 300 years. The area is assigned the IUCN Category II (National Parks) of the United Nations’ list of National Parks and protected areas, which means that park is primarily managed for ecosystem conservation. The catchment area is dominated by Mountain Ash, the world’s tallest flowering plant (angiosperm). Trees can reach heights of more than 90 metres in areas with high rainfall and fertile soil. Mountain ash forests are confined to the cool mountain regions with elevations ranging from 460 - 1100m and average rainfalls of 1100-2000mm. These trees are well distributed throughout Victoria’s Central Highlands including the Otway Ranges and Strzlecki Ranges; they are also found in Tasmania. The catchment area contains a portion of the Mt Disappointment range, the Divide and the headwaters of Wallaby Creek and Silver Creek, and much of the slopes are characterised as flat to moderate.<br /><br /> The station itself is located within an old growth stand with individual trees as old as 300 years. Below the dominant canopy lies a temperate rainforest understorey consisting of <em>Pomaderris aspera</em> and <em>Olearia argophylla</em> species, which are 10-18 metres tall. The lower layers of vegetation are dominated by tree ferns (<em>Cyathea australis</em> and <em>Dicksonia antartica</em>) and extensive tracts of rosette and rhizonic ferns (<em>Polystichum proliferum</em> and <em>Blechnum wattsii</em>) as well as Acacia trees. <br /> <br /> The major soil type within the forest is krasnozemic soils, which are friable red/brown, with high amounts of organic matter in the upper 20 – 30cm. However, the composition of krasnozemic soils is not homogenous, but rather a variation with altitude can be observed; lower altitudes inhabit grey-yellow podsolised soils compared to higher altitudes of the Kinglake and Hume plateau where the soil composition is krasnozemic loams. The clay content of these soils increases with depth until at least 200 cm deep, where after a transition soils contain rock fragments. The elevation is approximately 720 metres.<br /><br /> The original station was destroyed in February 2009 by bushfires. Before the bushfire, the main mast stood at 110m. In March 2010, a replacement station was established and sat at a height of 5m. Data from the site has been recorded from May 2010 onwards. As the station is relatively new, the post fire instrumentation is currently not as diverse when compared to the pre-fire instrumentation. The climate of the study area is classified as a cool, temperate zone, with the highest temperatures occurring during the summer months of December – February (13.8 – 22.5°C), whilst the coolest temperatures are experienced in May and August (4.7 – 9.2°C). Average annual precipitation is 1209mm, with a maximum rainfall occurring in June (Ashton, 2000). The study site experiences foggy conditions after sunset during autumn and winter.<br /><br />

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    This dataset consists of measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in tropical pasture using eddy covariance techniques.<br /> <br /> The site was identified as tropical pasture dominated by species <em>Chamaecrista rotundifolia</em> (Round-leaf cassia cv. Wynn), <em>Digitaria milijiana</em> (Jarra grass) and <em>Aristida sp.</em> standing at approximately 0.3m tall. The soil at the site was a mixture of red kandosol and deep sand. Elevation of the site was close to 70m and mean annual precipitation at a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site was 1250mm. Maximum temperatures ranged from 37.5°C (in October) to 31.2°C (in June), while minimum temperatures ranged from 12.6°C (in July) to 23.8°C (in January). Maximum temperatures varied on a seasonal basis between 6.3°C while minimum temperatures varied by 11.2°C. <br /> <br /> The instrument mast was 15 meters tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements were taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation were measured. <br />Ancillary measurements taken at the site included LAI, leaf-scale physiological properties (gas exchange, leaf isotope ratios, N and chlorophyll concentrations), vegetation optical properties and soil physical properties. Airborne based remote sensing (Lidar and hyperspectral measurements) was carried out across the transect in September 2008. <br /> The site was destroyed by fire in September 2013. <br /><br />This data is also available at http://data.ozflux.org.au .

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    This dataset consists of measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in a semi-arid mallee ecosystem north of the River Murray near Chowilla using eddy covariance techniques. <br /> <br /> The Calperum Chowilla site was established in July 2010 and is managed by the University of Adelaide (UA), coordinated by Prof Wayne Meyer and Prof David Chittleborough of the Landscape Futures Program as part of the Environment Institute. This is a former sheep grazing property that has been destocked and is being managed as a conservation area in this type of ecosystem. The landscape is flat with a series of low east–west sand dunes. The dunes are remnants of a previous dry era and are mostly now stabilised by mallee (multi-stemmed Eucalypt trees) and various shrubs. It is a semi-arid environment fringing the River Murray floodplains of the Riverland.<br />For additional site information, see http://www.landscapescience.org/. <br /><br /> This data is also available at http://data.ozflux.org.au .

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.5.0) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br> <br>The site is classified as box woodland, dominated by two main eucalypt species: <em>Eucalyptus microcarpa</em> (grey box) and <em>Eucalyptus leucoxylon</em> (yellow gum). The site has an elevation of 165&nbsp;m. Mean annual precipitation measured by the nearby Bureau of Meteorology site is 558&nbsp;mm. Maximum temperatures range from 12.6&nbsp;°C (in July) to 29.8&nbsp;°C (in January), while minimum temperatures range from 3.2&nbsp;°C (in July) to 14.2&nbsp;°C (in February). Maximum temperatures vary on a seasonal basis by approximately 17.2&nbsp;°C and minimum temperatures by 11.0&nbsp;°C.</br> <br>The instrument mast is 36&nbsp;m tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements are taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation are measured above the canopy. Soil heat fluxes are measured and soil moisture content is gathered using time domain reflectometry.</br>

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    This dataset consists of measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in tropical woodland using eddy covariance techniques.<br /><br /> The site was situated within a wetland that flooded seasonally. The principle vegetation was <em>Oryza rufipogon</em>, <em>Pseudoraphis spinescens</em> and <em>Eleocharis dulcis</em>. The elevation was approximately 4m, with a neighbouring Bureau of Meteorology station recording 1411mm mean annual precipitation.Maximum temperatures ranged from 31.3°C (in June and July) to 35.6°C (in October), while minimum temperatures ranged from 14.9°C (in July) to 23.9°C (in December and February). Maximum temperatures varied on a seasonal basis by approximately 4.3°C and minimum temperatures by 9.0°C.<br /> <br /> The instrument mast was 15m tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements are taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation were measured above the canopy. Soil heat fluxes were measured and soil moisture content was gathered using time domain reflectometry.<br /> Ancillary measurements taken at the site include LAI, leaf-scale physiological properties (gas exchange, leaf isotope ratios, N and chlorophyll concentrations), vegetation optical properties and soil physical properties. Airborne based remote sensing (Lidar and hyperspectral measurements) was carried out across the transect in September 2008. <br /><br />This data is also available at http://data.ozflux.org.au .

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    This dataset consists of measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in tropical forest using eddy covariance techniques.<br /><br /> The Robson Creek site is part of the FNQ Rainforest Site along with affiliated monitoring sites at Cape Tribulation (Daintree Rainforest Observatory) and Cow Bay (Daintree Discovery Centre). The flux station is located at the foothills of the Lamb Range, part of the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area, and north-west of a 25 hectare census plot established by CSIRO in 2012. <br /> The forest is classified as Regional Ecosystem (RE) 7.3.36a, complex mesophyll vine forest (Queensland Government 2006). There are 211 species in the adjacent 25ha plot, and average tree height is 28m, ranging from 23 to 44 m. Elevation of the site is 711m and mean annual precipitation is 2000mm. The upland rainforests of the Atherton Tablelands are some of the most biodiverse and carbon dense forests in Australia. The landform of the 25ha plot which is in the dominant wind direction from the station is moderately inclined with a low relief, a 30 m high ridge running north/south through the middle of the plot and a 40 m high ridge running north/south on the eastern edge of the plot. <br /><br /> The instruments are mounted on a free standing station at 40m. Fluxes of heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide are measured using the open-path eddy flux technique. Supplementary measurements above the canopy include temperature, humidity, windspeed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation. <br /><br /> This data is also available at http://data.ozflux.org.au . <br /><br />Note: Level 3 data for 2015 - 2018 were updated in 2018 correcting a rainfall issue in 2015 and a wind direction issue 2016 - 2018. A data gap from 2019-02-14 - 2019-02-21 was due to a major power supply failure.

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.4.15) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br> <br>Samford flux station is situated on an improved (<em>Paspalum dilatum</em>) pasture in the humid subtropical climatic region of coastal south-east Queensland. Located only 20&nbsp;km from the centre of Brisbane city, Samford Valley provides an ideal case study to examine the impact of urbanisation and land use change on ecosystem processes. The valley covers an area of some 82&nbsp;km<sup>2</sup> and is drained in the southern regions by the Samford creek, which extends some 13&nbsp;km to Samford Village and into the South Pine River. The Samford Valley is historically a rural area experiencing intense urbanisation, with the population increasing almost 50% in the 10 years to 2006 (Morton Bay Regional Council, 2011). Within the Samford valley study region, the Samford Ecological Research Facility (SERF) not only represents a microcosm of current and historical land uses in the valley, but provides a unique opportunity to intensively study various aspects of ecosystem health in a secure, integrated and long term research capacity. Mean annual minimum and maximum temperatures at a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site are 13.1&nbsp;°C and 25.6&nbsp;°C respectively while average rainfall is 1102&nbsp;mm.</br>

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    This dataset consists of measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in dry eucalypt woodland using eddy covariance techniques. <br /> <br /> The Collie flux station was located approximately 10km southeast of Collie, near Perth, Western Australia. It was established in August 2017 and stopped measuring in November 2019. <br /><br /> This data is also available at http://data.ozflux.org.au .

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    This dataset consists of measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in southeast of Emerald, Queensland, using eddy covariance techniques. <br /> <br /> The Arcturus greenhouse gas (GHG) monitoring station was established in July 2010, 48 km southeast of Emerald, Queensland, with flux tower measurements starting in June 2011 until early 2014. The station was part of a collaborative project between Geoscience Australia (GA) and CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research (CMAR). Elevation of the site was approximately 170m asl and mean annual precipitation was 572mm. The tower bordered 2 land use types split N-S: To the west lightly forested tussock grasslands; To the east crop lands, cycling through fallow periods.The instruments were installed on a square lattice tower with an adjustable pulley lever system to raise and lower the instrument arm. The tower was 5.6m tall with the instrument mast extending a further 1.1m above, totalling a height of 6.7m. Fluxes of heat, water vapour, methane and carbon dioxide were measured using the open-path eddy flux technique. Supplementary measurements above the canopy included temperature, humidity, windspeed, wind direction, rainfall, and the 4 components of net radiation. Soil heat flux, soil moisture and soil temperature measurements were also collected. <br /> For additional site information, see http://www.ozflux.org.au/monitoringsites/arcturus/index.html.<br /><br /> This data is also available at http://data.ozflux.org.au .