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Campbell Scientific TCAV Averaging Soil Thermocouple Probe

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.4.7) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br> <br>The Cape Tribulation flux station was located in the land that is adjacent to the Daintree National Park which is part of the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area (WTWHA). The site is flanked to the west by coastal ranges rising to more than 1400&nbsp;m and to the east by the Coral Sea. The red clay loam podzolic soils are of metamorphic origin and have good drainage characteristics. The metamorphic rocks grade into granite boulders along Thompson Creek which runs along the northern boundary of the site. The crane site itself is gently sloping but the fetch area makes the site one of very complex terrain. The forest is classed as complex mesophyll vine forest (type 1a) and has an average canopy height of 25m. The dominant canopy trees belong to the <i>Apocynaceae</i>, <i>Arecaceae</i>, <i>Euphorbiaceae</i>, <i>Lauraceae</i>, <i>Meliaceae</i>, <i>Myristicaceae</i> and <i>Myrtaceae</i> families. The forest is continuous for several kilometres around the crane except for an area 300&nbsp;m due east of the crane, which is regrowth forest. Annual average rainfall at the site is around 5180&nbsp;mm and is strongly seasonal, with 66% falling between January and April (wet season). Mean daily temperature ranges from 26.6&nbsp;°C in February to 21.2&nbsp;°C in July. </br> <br> Tropical cyclones are a frequent occurrence in Far North Queensland. These severe tropical storm systems are natural phenomena which play a major role in determining the ecology of Queensland's tropical lowland rainforests. In March 1999 Tropical Cyclone Rona (Category 3) passed over the Cape Tribulation area causing widespread damage (gusts >170&nbsp;km/h). At the site several large trees fell, nearly all of the remaining trees were stripped of leaves and the lianas towers were torn to ground level. </br> <br> The flux station was mounted at the 45&nbsp;m level on the tower of the Australian Canopy Crane external link. The canopy crane is a Liebherr 91 EC, freestanding construction tower crane. The crane is 48.5&nbsp;m tall with a radius of 55&nbsp;m enabling access to 1 hectare of rainforest. Fluxes of heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide were measured using the open-path eddy covariance technique. Supplementary measurements above the canopy included temperature, humidity, rainfall, total solar; these measurements have continued post the flux system decommissioning. Heat flux, soil temperature and water content (time domain reflectometry) were measured in proximity to the flux station; these measurements have continued post the flux system decommissioning. Detailed biometric measurements are made at the crane site and all trees have regular (5 yearly) dbh measurements and canopy mapping carried out. Monitoring bores (3) are located on site. Leaf litter measurements are carried out on a monthly basis.

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    This data release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in semi-arid eucalypt woodland using eddy covariance techniques. It been processed using PyFluxPro (v3.3.0) as described in Isaac et al. (2017), <a href="https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017">https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017</a>. PyFluxPro takes data recorded at the flux tower and process this data to a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER). For more information about the processing levels, see <a href="https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki">https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki</a>.<br /> <br /> The Gingin site was established in June 2011 by CSIRO and is now managed by Edith Cowan University Centre for Ecosystem Management. The site is a natural woodland of high species diversity. The overstorey is dominated by Banksia spp. mainly B. menziesii, B. attenuata, and B. grandis with a height of around 7m and leaf area index of about 0.8. There are occasional stands of eucalypts and acacia that reach to 10m and have a denser foliage cover. There are many former wetlands dotted around the woodland, most of which were inundated all winter and some had permanent water 30 years ago. The watertable has now fallen below the base of these systems and they are disconnected and are no longer permanently wet. The fine sediments, sometimes diatomaceous, hold water and they have perched watertables each winter. There is a natural progression of species accompanying this process as they gradually become more dominated by more xeric species. The soils are mainly Podosol sands, with low moisture holding capacity. Field capacity typically about 8 to 10%, and in summer these generally hold less than 2% moisture. The water tabl is at about 8.5 m below the surface, and a WA Dept of water long-term monitoring piezometer is near the base of the tower. The instrument mast is 14m tall, with the eddy covariance instruments mounted at 14.8m. Fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapour and heat are quantified with open-path eddy covariance instrumentation. Ancillary measurements include temperature, air humidity, wind speed and direction, precipitation, incoming and outgoing shortwave radiation, incoming and outgoing long wave radiation, incoming total and diffuse PAR and reflected PAR. Soil water content and temperature are measured at six soil depths. Surface soil heat fluxes are also measured. A COSMOS Cosmic ray soil moisture instrument is installed, along with a logged piezometer, and nested piezometers installed with short screens for groundwater profile sampling. To monitor the watertable gradient, piezometers will be installed 500 m esat and west of the tower. <br/> For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/gingin-banksia-woodland-supersite/. <br /><br />

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.5.0) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br><br> Great Western Woodlands (GWW) comprise a 16 million&nbsp;ha mosaic of temperate woodland, shrubland and mallee vegetation in south-west Western Australia. The region has remained relatively intact since European settlement, owing to the variable rainfall and lack of readily accessible groundwater. The woodland component is globally unique in that nowhere else do woodlands occur at as little as 220&nbsp;mm mean annual rainfall. Further, other temperate woodlands around the world have typically become highly fragmented and degraded through agricultural use. Great Western Woodlands Site was established in 2012 in the Credo Conservation Reserve. The site is in semi-arid woodland and was operated as a pastoral lease from 1907 to 2007. The core 1&nbsp;ha plot is characterised by <em>Eucalyptus salmonophloia</em> (salmon gum), with <em>Eucalyptus salubris</em> and <em>Eucalyptus clelandii</em> dominating other research plots. The flux station is located in salmon gum woodland.

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.5.0) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br> <br>The Cape Tribulation flux station was located in the land that is adjacent to the Daintree National Park which is part of the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area (WTWHA). The site is flanked to the west by coastal ranges rising to more than 1400&nbsp;m and to the east by the Coral Sea. The red clay loam podzolic soils are of metamorphic origin and have good drainage characteristics. The metamorphic rocks grade into granite boulders along Thompson Creek which runs along the northern boundary of the site. The crane site itself is gently sloping but the fetch area makes the site one of very complex terrain. The forest is classed as complex mesophyll vine forest (type 1a) and has an average canopy height of 25m. The dominant canopy trees belong to the <i>Apocynaceae</i>, <i>Arecaceae</i>, <i>Euphorbiaceae</i>, <i>Lauraceae</i>, <i>Meliaceae</i>, <i>Myristicaceae</i> and <i>Myrtaceae</i> families. The forest is continuous for several kilometres around the crane except for an area 300&nbsp;m due east of the crane, which is regrowth forest. Annual average rainfall at the site is around 5180&nbsp;mm and is strongly seasonal, with 66% falling between January and April (wet season). Mean daily temperature ranges from 26.6&nbsp;°C in February to 21.2&nbsp;°C in July. </br> <br> Tropical cyclones are a frequent occurrence in Far North Queensland. These severe tropical storm systems are natural phenomena which play a major role in determining the ecology of Queensland's tropical lowland rainforests. In March 1999 Tropical Cyclone Rona (Category 3) passed over the Cape Tribulation area causing widespread damage (gusts >170&nbsp;km/h). At the site several large trees fell, nearly all of the remaining trees were stripped of leaves and the lianas towers were torn to ground level. </br> <br> The flux station was mounted at the 45&nbsp;m level on the tower of the Australian Canopy Crane external link. The canopy crane is a Liebherr 91 EC, freestanding construction tower crane. The crane is 48.5&nbsp;m tall with a radius of 55&nbsp;m enabling access to 1 hectare of rainforest. Fluxes of heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide were measured using the open-path eddy covariance technique. Supplementary measurements above the canopy included temperature, humidity, rainfall, total solar; these measurements have continued post the flux system decommissioning. Heat flux, soil temperature and water content (time domain reflectometry) were measured in proximity to the flux station; these measurements have continued post the flux system decommissioning. Detailed biometric measurements are made at the crane site and all trees have regular (5 yearly) dbh measurements and canopy mapping carried out. Monitoring bores (3) are located on site. Leaf litter measurements are carried out on a monthly basis.

  • Categories    

    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.4.7) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER). <br /> <br /> Located in a 5 km<sup>2</sup> block of relatively uniform open-forest savanna, the site is representative of high rainfall, frequently burnt tropical savanna. <br /><br /> Tropical savanna in Australia occupies 1.9 million km<sup>2</sup> across the north and given the extent of this biome, understanding biogeochemical cycles, impacts of fire on sequestration, vegetation and fauna is a national priority. In the NT, savanna ecosystems are largely intact in terms of tree cover, with only modest levels of land use change. Despite this, there is evidence of a loss of biodiversity, most likely due to shifts in fire regimes and a loss of patchiness in the landscape. Approximately 40 % of the savanna burn every year and understanding fire impacts on fauna and flora is essential for effective land management. <br /><br />

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.4.7) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br> <br> The Calperum Chowilla site was established in July 2010 and is managed by the University of Adelaide, coordinated by Prof Wayne Meyer and Prof David Chittleborough of the Landscape Futures Program as part of the Environment Institute. This is a former sheep grazing property that has been destocked and is being managed as a conservation area in this type of ecosystem. The landscape is flat with a series of low east–west sand dunes. The dunes are remnants of a previous dry era and are mostly now stabilized by mallee (multi-stemmed Eucalypt trees) and various shrubs. It is a semi-arid environment fringing the River Murray floodplains of the Riverland. <br>

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.5.0) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br> <br>This is a topographically flat area, primarily comprised of the following soil types: sandy loams, scattered clays, red brown earths, transitional red brown earth, sands over clay and deep sands. Stream valleys and layered soil and sedimentary materials are found across the landscape.</br> <br>The flux station tower extends to 20&nbsp;m, however flux measurements are recorded from slightly lower than this. Mean annual precipitation from the nearby Bureau of Meteorology is 465&nbsp;mm. Maximum temperatures ranged from 16.6&nbsp;°C (in July) to 37.4&nbsp;°C (in January), while minimum temperatures ranged from 11.8&nbsp;°C (in July) to 29.0&nbsp;°C (in January). Maximum temperatures varied on a seasonal basis by approximately 20.8&nbsp;°C and minimum temperatures by 17.2&nbsp;°C.</br> <br>The site is within a wider research area (60 x 60&nbsp;km) that supports a network of flux stations, which have been in operation since late 2001.</br>

  • Categories    

    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.5.0) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br> <br>The Cumberland Plain flux station is located in a dry sclerophyll forest. The Cumberland Plain Woodland is now an endangered ecological community that encompasses distinct groupings of plants growing on clayey soils. The canopy is dominated by <em>Eucalyptus moluccana</em> and <em>Eucalyptus fibrosa</em>, which host an expanding population of mistletoe. Average canopy height is 23&nbsp;m, the elevation of the site is 20&nbsp;m and mean annual precipitation is 800&nbsp;mm. Fluxes of water vapour, carbon dioxide and heat are quantified with the open-path eddy flux technique from a 30&nbsp;m tall mast. Additional measurements above the canopy include temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave and longwave radiation and net, diffuse and direct radiation and the photochemical reflectance index. In addition, profiles of humidity and CO<sub>2</sub> are measured at eight levels within the canopy, as well as measurements of soil moisture content, soil heat fluxes, soil temperature, and 10&nbsp;hr fuel moisture dynamics. In addition, regular monitoring of understory species abundance, mistletoe infection, leaf area index and litterfall are also performed.

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    This dataset consists of measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in open forest savanna using eddy covariance techniques.<br /><br /> The site is classified as open forest savanna. The overstory is co-dominated by tree species <em>E. tetrodonta</em>, <em>E. dichromophloia</em>, <em>C. terminalis</em>, <em>Sorghum intrans</em>, <em>S. plumosum</em>, <em>Themeda triandra</em> and <em>Chrysopogon fallax</em>, with canopy height averaging 12.3m. Elevation of the site is close to 175m and mean annual precipitation from a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site measures 895.3mm. Maximum temperatures range from 29.1°C (in June) to 37.6°C (in July), while minimum temperatures range from 14.6°C (in July) to 24.8°C (in November). Maximum temperatures vary seasonally by 8.5°C and minimum by 10.2°C. <br /><br /> The instrument mast is 15 meters tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements are taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation are measured above the canopy. Soil heat fluxes are measured and soil moisture content is gathered using time domain reflectometry. <br /> Ancillary measurements taken at the site include LAI, leaf-scale physiological properties (gas exchange, leaf isotope ratios, N and chlorophyll concentrations), vegetation optical properties and soil physical properties. Airborne based remote sensing (Lidar and hyperspectral measurements) was carried out across the transect in September 2008. <br /><br />This data is also available at http://data.ozflux.org.au .

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    This data release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in semi-arid eucalypt woodland using eddy covariance techniques. It been processed using PyFluxPro (v3.3.3) as described in Isaac et al. (2017), <a href="https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017">https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017</a>. PyFluxPro takes data recorded at the flux tower and process this data to a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER). For more information about the processing levels, see <a href="https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki">https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki</a>. <br /><br /> This is a topographically flat area, primarily comprised of the following soil types: sandy loams, scattered clays, red brown earths, transitional red brown earth, sands over clay and deep sands. Stream valleys and layered soil and sedimentary materials are found across the landscape. <br /><br /> The flux station tower extends to 20m, however flux measurements are recorded from slightly lower than this. Mean annual precipitation from a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site measured 465 mm. Maximum temperatures ranged from 37.4°C (in January) to 16.6°C (in July), while minimum temperatures ranged from 29.0°C (in January) to 11.8°C (in July). Maximum temperatures varied on a seasonal basis by approximately 20.8°C and minimum temperatures by 17.2°C. <br /> The site is within a wider research area (60 x 60 km) that supports a network of flux stations, which have been in operation since late 2001 onwards.<br /><br />