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    Plant material decomposition in soil was investigated using two types of tea bags (Green and Rooibos) buried to 8 cm for 80-90 days across seven TERN SupperSites between 2016 - 2017. The sites included: Great Western Woodlands, Robson Creek Rainforest, Samford Peri-Urban, Cumberland Plain, Cape Tribulation, Warra Tall Eucalypt and Tumbarumba Wet Eucalypt sites. Weight loss of tea bags was determined and contextual data collected.

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    Wood block decomposition assessment at the Great Western Woodlands site is part of a global program looking at the influence of microbes and invertebrates on wood decay. A common protocol was developed exposing small (~400 cm3) pieces of a wood-substrate (untreated Pinus radiata) to the environment excluding and not-excluding macroinvertebrates (e.g. termites) by the use of a plastic mesh.

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    In 1963, the Glen Canyon Dam, in Hite Utah was completed, creating the Lake Powell reservoir along the Colorado River. The water levels of Lake Powell peaked in 1983 and have declined since, releasing over-pressure on the underlying sediment. This release in over-pressure created mud volcanoes, structures along the shoreline made of cavities that allow fluid and gases to rise to the surface and escape. Green house gases including methane are released from these structures, and to better understand how development of natural wetlands can result in unintended increased levels of greenhouse gas emissions, we asked 1) how much of each gas is generated or and whether the amount of each gas is changing through time and 2) how are these gases forming in the subsurface? We first measured the amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and air (N) in volcano gas samples collected in 2014, 2015, and 2016. We found that from 2014 through 2016, methane levels from these volcanoes fluctuated significantly. In 2016, we looked at the amounts of carbon and hydrogen isotopes in the methane, which told us the gas is generated from microorganisms feeding on organic matter and is released during water-level fluctuations. We looked at mud volcanoes only located along the Lake Powell marina delta in Hite, Utah. The data spans geological structures restricted to one marina delta.

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    Invertebrates dominate the animal world in terms of abundance, diversity and biomass and play critical roles in maintaining ecosystem function. Despite their obvious importance, disproportionate research attention remains focused on vertebrates, with knowledge and understanding of invertebrate ecology still lacking. Due to their inherent advantages, usage of camera traps in ecology has risen dramatically over the last three decades, especially for research on mammals. However, few studies have used cameras to reliably detect fauna such as invertebrates or used cameras to examine specific aspects of invertebrate ecology. Twenty-four Reconyx PC800 HyperfireTM cameras were deployed on 7th July 2016 at Main Camp and left until 12th October 2016 (98 days, or 2352 h of deployment) in the Simpson Desert, south-western Queensland, capturing 372 time-lapse images of Wolf spiders (Family Lycosidae). Images were tagged with camera location, position, angle, camera ID and presence of lycosids. Additionally, spotlight surveys were conducted in October 2016 every hour between dusk (19:30 h) and dawn (05:30 h) over three nights with a total of 352 lycosids observed. This data set was used to determine whether: 1) camera traps provide a viable method for detecting wolf spiders, 2) diel activity patterns of the spiders can be ascertained, and 3) patterns in spider activity vary with environmental conditions, specifically between burned and unburned habitats and the crests and bases of sand dunes. This data presents a useful example of the utility of cameras as a tool for determining the diel activity patterns and habitat use of larger arthropods such as wolf spiders. Please note: Camera trap images are not provided and only species occurrence records are included. Also, image files were renamed after collection, resulting in a number versus time conflict. However, dates and times of sightings provided are correct.

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    High quality digital images are captured using a digital SLR camera at the plots (core 1 hectare vegetation plot) at the TERN Warra Tall Eucalypt SuperSite using the panoramic photopoint method. The panoramic photopoint method may be the most informative in open forests/woodlands and rangelands. Three photopoints are established configured in an equilateral triangle (2.5m sides) with the centre marked with a star dropper and the location recorded with DGPS. At each photopoint take photographic sequences in a 360° panorama, with up to 40 photographs with a minimum 50% overlap between consecutive photographs. For more information about the method, see <a href= 'http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/2.1.4287.3607'>White, el al. (2012) AusPlots Rangelands Survey Protocols Manual Version 1.2.9.</a> <br> The Warra Tall Eucalypt SuperSite was established in 2012 and is located in a stand of tall, mixed-aged <em>Eucalyptus obliqua</em> forest (1.5, 77 and &gt;250 years-old) with a rainforest / wet sclerophyll understorey and a dense man-fern (<em>Dicksonia antarctica</em>) ground-layer. The site experienced a fire in January 2019, which consumed the ground layer and killed a high proportion of the understorey trees but stimulated dense seedling regeneration. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/warra-tall-eucalypt-supersite/. <br /><br /> Other images collected at the site include digital hemispherical photography, phenocam time-lapse images taken from fixed under and overstorey cameras, five-photopoint images, and ancillary images of fauna and flora.

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    The dataset includes three csv files: [1] effects of pre-inhabitation and viruses on the feeding behavior of <i>Rhopalosiphum padi</i> and <i>R. maidis</i> (min). [2] Effects of pre-inhabitation and viruses on the fecundity of<i> R. padi</i> and <i>R. maidis</i> (total offspring in laboratory and field). [3] Effect of pre-inhabitation and viruses on the host plant nutrient content (amino acids, total sterols, and simple sugars-mg/g). These data might be used by researchers studying positive interactions, effects of viruses on host plants and vectors, phytochemistry of the wheat plant, and feeding behavior of phloem-feeders.

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    This dataset comprises of new, high precision radiocarbon dates for 20 mainland thylacines and 24 mainland devils. Metadata includes museum accession numbers and origin of specimens. We envision that this dataset could be used in studies of paleo-ecological reconstructions and for estimating extinction time for both devils and thylacines on mainland Australia. This dataset includes the youngest reliable fossil ages for both species on mainland Australia as per the criteria set out in Rodriguez-Rey at al (2015). <i>"Criteria for assessing the quality of Middle Pleistocene to Holocene vertebrate fossil ages."</i> Quaternary Geochronology 30 (2015): 69-79.

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    This dataset consists of measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in a pastoral area using eddy covariance techniques.<br /><br /> The flux station is located within an area of dryland agriculture. The surrounding area is dominated by broadacre farming practices. The vegetation cover is predominantly pasture. Elevation of the site is close to 330 m. Climate information comes from the nearby Pingelly BoM AWS station 010626 (1991 to 2016) and shows mean annual precipitation is approximately 445 mm with highest rainfall in June and July of 81 mm each month. Maximumum and minuimum annual rainfall is 775 and 217 mm, respectively. Maximum temperatures range from 31.9°C (in Jan) to 15.4°C (in July), while minimum temperatures range from 5.5°C (in July) to 16.0 °C (in Feb).<br /><br />This data is also available at http://data.ozflux.org.au .

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    The lesser hairy-footed dunnart (<i>Sminthopsis youngsoni, Dasyuridae</i>) is a generalist marsupial insectivore in arid Australia, but consumes wolf spiders (<i>Lycosa spp., Lycosidae</i>) disproportionately often relative to their availability. This project tested the hypothesis that this disproportionate predation is a product of frequent encounter rates between the interactants due to high overlap in their diets and use of space and time. This data set focuses on the dietary aspect. Specifically, invertebrate pitfall trapping was employed to quantify food availability and selectivity for both wolf spiders and <i>S.youngsoni</i>. Pitfall traps were deployed along trails left by tracked individuals, as well as control trails, of both species groups in the north-western Simpson Desert, Queensland. In total, invertebrate pitfall traps were deployed along 11 <i>S.youngsoni</i> and 8 <i>lycosa</i> trails in October 2016. Invertebrates were identified to the level of "Order", except for spiders (Order: Arachnida) and bees, wasps and ants (Order: Hymenoptera) which were identified to the "Family" level using identification keys and were also counted and grouped into seven size classes. This data was used for the following analyses: [1] a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to test whether total numbers of arthropods differed between trail type and species, [2] non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) and [3] permutational analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) to test whether assemblages of arthropod prey and prey sizes differed between the two trail types for each species and between each species.

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    Wood block decomposition assessment at the Warra Tall Eucalypt site is part of a global program looking at the influence of microbes and invertebrates on wood decay. A common protocol was developed exposing small (~400 cm3) pieces of a wood-substrate (untreated Pinus radiata) to the environment excluding and not-excluding macroinvertebrates (e.g. termites) by the use of a plastic mesh.