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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Wirilda-Callitris-Eucalyptus mallee in South Australia, Australia. </br><br> Pre-European reference-analogue vegetation: <em>Callitris</em> (<em>Callitris preissii</em>) - <em>Eucalyptus</em> mallee (<em>E. odorata</em> and <em>E. porosa</em>) low open woodland. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1750-1849: Meru indigenous people manage the area</li> <li>1838: Explorers traversed the area</li> <li>1850: Pastoralists with shepherds, grazing sheep</li> <li>1883: Land selected, boundary fencing established</li> <li>1883-1900: Continuous grazing with sheep and cattle grazing native vegetation</li> <li>1890: Heavy timber cutting for Callington and Kanmantoo mines, sheep grazing</li> <li>1900: Area ploughed and sown to black oats</li> <li>1901-72: Continuous grazing with sheep and cattle grazing modified and native pastures</li> <li>1950: Commenced fertilising pastures using super - applied aerially several times in the 1960’s</li> <li>1972: Ceased applications of super fertilizer, ceased grazing all cattle removed</li> <li>1974: Area purchased by the Lay family</li> <li>1974-1981: Planted about 25,000 tubestock using local endemic species, mainly trees and shrubs</li> <li>1974-2012: Monitoring and recording of seedling survival and regeneration</li> <li>1974-1985, 2006-12: Major effort in controlling weeds and feral animals</li> <li>1982: Area gazetted as a Heritage Agreement</li> <li>1983-2003: All further revegetation efforts by direct seeding techniques such as “niche seeding”</li> <li>1992: Massive summer rains (a 1:430 year event) with major erosion along watercourses and regeneration of most species</li> <li>2004: Neighbour starts fire, which burns out 25% of area</li> <li>2006: Area gains a 10 year package of funding under the “bushbids” biodiversity stewardship programme</li> <li>2007: <em>Monadenia</em> weed orchid and bridal creeper begin to invade area.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Big Scrub, Tintenbar site. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: The site was originally lowland subtropical rainforest on basalt-derived and alluvial soils below 250&nbsp;m asl and further than 2&nbsp;km from the coast. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1788: Indigenous land management - Goori people</li> <li>1823-25: Explorers Oxley followed by Rous traversed the area</li> <li>1842: Cedar getters ‘moved in’</li> <li>1870: Portion or survey plan prepared for the Tintenbar property</li> <li>1880: Camphor was planted as a shade tree in Lismore 1880s along streets</li> <li>1885: Brush had been largely selected and slightly cleared</li> <li>1900: Clearing done with brush hooks. Small trees were cut down with an axe and large trees were cut down using a cross-cut saw. Brush and fallen timber was burnt</li> <li>1900: Basalt rock removed from paddocks and placed around borders as field stone fencing, Paddock cleared of floaters so it could be ploughed</li> <li>1901: Aggressive pasture grasses established. Initially this was <em>Paspalum</em></li> <li>1901-1978: Dairying and pasture improvement - mainly Kikuyu and fertiliser added</li> <li>1968: Observed incursions of camphor in creeks and gullies but not removed or controlled</li> <li>1979: Changed from dairying to beef cattle production</li> <li>1980-87: Cattle removed - destocked</li> <li>1981-87: Observed incursions of weeds into the former dairy pasture including lantana, barna or elephant (<em>Pennisetum purpureum</em>) grass and tobacco bush and some camphor but not removed or controlled</li> <li>1988: Commenced agisting cattle</li> <li>1990-93: Agisted horses and cattle</li> <li>1993: Ceased agisting cattle and horses</li> <li>1994-2011: Dense stands of camphor left unchecked.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about the Taroom Shire Potters Flat. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: The site was originally brigalow <em>Acacia harpophylla</em>, mixed community associated with overstorey several species, including <em>Eucalyptus coolabah</em>, <em>E. cambageana</em>, <em>Casuarina cristata</em>, and a range of understorey species, grassy woodlands and open forests. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1860: Area used for sheep grazing by shepherds</li> <li>1870: Permanent fences established</li> <li>1875: Start of continuous or set stocking with sheep</li> <li>1880: Incursion of prickly pear started</li> <li>1904-1929: Continuous grazing with sheep</li> <li>1929-1932: Gradual increase in cattle numbers, decline in sheep</li> <li>1930-1935: Land clearance via ringbarking</li> <li>1932-1970: Almost continuous grazing with cattle - relatively low stock numbers</li> <li>1935: Prickly pear had been destroyed</li> <li>1940-1955: Re-clearing brigalow regrowth with axes and fallen timber burnt</li> <li>1956-1960: Brigalow regrowth left unchecked</li> <li>1960-1962: Brigalow regrowth pulled mechanically and burnt</li> <li>1962-1970: Regrowth commenced restabilising without treatment or control</li> <li>1970: Area/s designated as blocks to be left as shelter belts for cattle</li> <li>1970: Commenced managing areas surrounding the site regrowth (i.e. shelter belt) mechanically</li> <li>1971-2010: Areas surrounding the site regularly and intensively managed with ploughing, fertilising the pasture and cropping</li> <li>1971-2010: Site almost continually used as shelter belt for cattle - high use.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Talaheni Horse Paddock, Murrambatman, NSW. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: The site was originally a <em>Themeda sp.</em> grassy woodland. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1830: Grazing of native vegetation - shepherds</li> <li>1900-1961: Fencing and continuous grazing with sheep</li> <li>1905: Overstorey thinned by ringbarking</li> <li>1906-1920: Continuous removal of suckers and regrowth</li> <li>1962: Remaining larger trees pushed over with a bull dozer</li> <li>1962-1974: Continuous grazing with cattle</li> <li>1968-1978: Four applications of superphosphate and exotic pasture species</li> <li>1975-1982: Continuous grazing with horses</li> <li>1983-1984: Continuous grazing with sheep</li> <li>1985: Continuous grazing ceased</li> <li>1986: Commenced rehabilitation</li> <li>1987-2008: Area lightly grazed using rotational grazing with sheep</li> <li>2008-2010: All stock removed - increasing high numbers of kangaroos.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Organ Pipes National Park, Volcanic Plains Bioregion, Victoria. </br><br> Pre-European reference-analogue vegetation: Treeless basalt plain predominantly grassland dominated by Kangaroo Grass <em>Themeda triandra</em> with an array of inter-tussock species. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1830: Indigenous people manage the area</li> <li>1835: Sheep grazing commenced (shepherds)</li> <li>1851: Alienated from the Crown as freehold and fenced</li> <li>1851-1965: Area managed for dairying, an orchard and cropping and grazing modified pastures</li> <li>1965: Agricultural production abandoned</li> <li>1965-1986: Area minimally managed</li> <li>1972: Organ Pipes National Park declared</li> <li>1986-1992: Commenced species re-introduced site with supplemental plantings. Area managed to control weed and further incursions</li> <li>1989-2003: Repeated monitoring. Area lightly grazed by rabbits and macropods</li> <li>1993: Site burnt [prescribed fire]; supplemental re-vegetation with indigenous local species </li> <li>1995: Site was burnt [prescribed fire]</li> <li>1997: Site was burnt [prescribed fire] followed by drought</li> <li>2003: Ceased monitoring and enhancement to the site</li> <li>2004-10: Minimal intervention.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Wirilda-Eucalyptus-Allocasuarina open grassy woodland, SA. </br><br> Pre-European reference-analogue vegetation: river red gum (<em>Eucalyptus camaldulensis</em>), blue gum (<em>E. leucoxylon</em>) - drooping sheoak (<em>Allocasuarina verticillata</em>) open woodland. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1750-1849: Meru indigenous people manage the area</li> <li>1838: Explorers traversed the area</li> <li>1850: Pastoralists with shepherds, grazing sheep</li> <li>1883: Land selected, boundary fencing established</li> <li>1883-1900: Continuous grazing with sheep and cattle grazing native vegetation</li> <li>1890: Heavy timber cutting for Callington and Kanmantoo mines, sheep grazing</li> <li>1901-72: Continuous grazing with sheep and cattle grazing modified and native pastures</li> <li>1901-ongoing: Area invaded by invasive pasture species (oats) and weeds</li> <li>1950: Commenced fertilizing pastures using super - applied aerially</li> <li>1972: Area purchased by the Lay family</li> <li>1974: Ceased applications of super fertilizer, ceased grazing, all cattle removed</li> <li>1974-1981: Planted thousands of local endemic seedlings mainly trees and shrubs</li> <li>1974-2012: Monitoring and recording of seedling survival and regeneration</li> <li>1974-1985, 2006-12: Major effort in controlling weeds and feral animals</li> <li>1982: Area gazetted as a Heritage Agreement</li> <li>1992: Massive summer rains (a 1:430 year event) with major erosion along watercourses and regeneration of most species</li> <li>2004: Neighbour starts fire that burns out 25% of area</li> <li>2006: Area gains a 10 year package of funding under the “bushbids” biodiversity stewardship programme</li> <li>2007: <em>Monadenia</em> weed orchid and bridal creeper begin to invade area.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about South Brooman State Forest, NSW. </br><br> Pre-European reference-analogue vegetation: The site was originally eucalypt tall open forest, multi-aged open, dry sclerophyll forest. The main overstorey species were spotted gum (<em>Corymbia maculata</em>), <em>Eucalyptus muelleriana</em>, <em>E. paniculata</em>, <em>E. pilularis</em>. The main understorey species were <em>Acacia spp.</em>, <em>Acmena spp.</em> </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1830: Unmodified</li> <li>1880: Area picked over for high quality sawlogs</li> <li>1945: Area picked over for high quality sawlogs</li> <li>1949: Sawlog harvesting - 85% of area</li> <li>1959: Sawlog harvesting - 85% of area</li> <li>1968: Commercial Thinning - 25% of area</li> <li>1969: Area left to rehabilitate</li> <li>1994: Wildfire - 100% of the area</li> <li>1996: Pole harvesting - 5% of area</li> <li>1998: Sawlog harvesting - 20% of the area</li> <li>1999 and 2003: Hazard reduction</li> <li>1997: Site was burnt (prescribed fire) followed by drought</li> <li>2004-2011: Area left to rehabilitate</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details for the Big Scrub Rocky Creek Dam, NSW. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark - analogue vegetation: The site was originally Lowland Subtropical Rainforest on basalt-derived and alluvial soils. The forest is distinguished by its dense, uneven canopy comprised of typically two to three tall tree layers. Eucalypts and brushbox (<em>Lophostemon confertus</em>) may be present as sparse emergent. Characteristic life-forms include buttressed trees, strangler figs, stands of bangalow palms (<em>Archontophoenix cunninghamiana</em>), woody vines and large epiphytes. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1840: Intact rainforest</li> <li>1862: Area opened-up for selection</li> <li>1900: Cedar getters select large trees</li> <li>1910: Rainforest cleared and converted to pasture for dairying</li> <li>1911-1948: Area used for grazing dairy cattle</li> <li>1948: Area acquired for public use (water storage)</li> <li>1950-1989: Minimal management - land in transition (open public space)</li> <li>1950-1952: Rocky Creek Dam constructed</li> <li>1983-1990: Commenced experiments using assisted regeneration on small test plots</li> <li>1991-2000: Large scale assisted regeneration (25&nbsp;ha) by converting lantana thickets to rainforest</li> <li>2001-2011: Minimal management.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about the Cumberland State Forest, Old Abandoned Arboretum site, NSW, Australia. </br><br> Pre-European reference-analogue vegetation: The Cumberland State Forest is part of the Blue Gum High Forest (Daniel Connolly pers comm). It is a tall wet sclerophyll forest found on Wianamatta group Ashfield Shale. Blue Gum High Forest is dominated by Sydney blue gum (<em>Eucalyptus saligna</em>), blackbutt (<em>E. pilularis</em>), and turpentine (<em>Syncarpia glomulifera</em>) with a number of other eucalypts occurring patchily. A sparse open cover of small trees includes a variety of sclerophyllous and mesophyllous species. The ground layer is variable in composition and cover; including ferny, grassy or herbaceous and/or vines and climbers. The characteristics of the ground cover are related to the topgraphic position. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1788- Area managed by indigenous Darug people</li> <li>1788-1824: Region explored, un-modified native forest blue gum/ironbark on shale</li> <li>1825: Parcel selected by Mr Shepherd</li> <li>1860: Tree cover likely to have been thinned - selective logging for fences and housing</li> <li>1826-1907: Grazing stock on native pastures</li> <li>1908: Land parcel cleared and sown to improved pasture, and evidence of chicken farm and fruit orchards</li> <li>1909-1937: Managed as improved pasture and grazing</li> <li>1937-38: Purchased by NSW Forestry Commission</li> <li>1941-42: Remaining native forest trees cleared to establish an arboretum</li> <li>1943-45: Arboretum planted as a future urban working forest</li> <li>1946-73: Arboretum managed for education and demonstration - infilling regrowth native forest observed</li> <li>1974-84: Arboretum increasing managed for recreation - infilling regrowth native forest observed</li> <li>1985-2012: Area managed for recreation (ex-arboretum and regrowth native forest).</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about the Cumberland State Forest, compartments 8b, 9a and 9b, NSW, Australia. </br><br> Pre-European reference-analogue vegetation: the site was originally a wet sclerophyll forest found on Wianamatta group Ashfield Shale. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1788: Area managed by indigenous Darug people</li> <li>1788-1824: Region explored - un-modified native forest blue gum/ironbark on shale</li> <li>1825: Parcel selected by shepherd</li> <li>1826-1907: Grazing cattle on native pastures</li> <li>1860: Tree cover likely to have been thinned - selective logging</li> <li>1908: Commenced clearing patches of trees for improved pasture, chooks, orchards</li> <li>1909-1937: Managed as improved pasture for grazing</li> <li>1937-38: Purchased by NSW Forestry Commission</li> <li>1941-42: Area cleared of remaining native forest trees</li> <li>1946-73: Area managed for education and demonstration - regenerating native forest</li> <li>1974-84: Area increasing managed for recreation - regenerating native forest</li> <li>1985-2012: Area managed for recreation - regenerating native forest.</li></ul></br>