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    The data set contains information on leaf <sup>13</sup>C isotope composition studied on three species, <i>Maireana sedifolia</i>, <i>Ptilotus obovatus</i> and <i>Eremophila scoparia</i> from the core 1 ha Salmon Gum plot at the Credo, Great Western Woodland site.

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    The dataset contains maps of total % C<sub>3</sub> and C<sub>4</sub> plant cover, proportional C<sub>3</sub> and C<sub>4</sub> vegetation (relative to combined C<sub>3</sub> and C<sub>4</sub> cover), and vegetation &delta;<sup>13</sup>C isoscape (stable carbon isotope values) across Australia. Data are centered on year 2015. We used vegetation and land-use rasters to categorize grid-cells (100 m<sup>2</sup>) into woody (C<sub>3</sub>), native herbaceous (C<sub>3</sub> and C<sub>4</sub>), and herbaceous cropland (C<sub>3</sub> and C<sub>4</sub>) cover. TERN Ecosystem Surveillance field surveys and environmental factors were regressed to predict native C<sub>4</sub> herbaceous cover. These layers were combined and a &delta;<sup>13</sup>C mixing model was used to calculate site-averaged &delta;<sup>13</sup>C values.

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    The record contains information on leaf chemistry studied on co-occurring tropical mountaintop restricted tree species from various mountaintop sites in Far North Queensland in 2019. Data on leaf stable carbon and nitrogen isotope concentrations, and elemental chemistry such as carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, copper, boron, sulfur, zinc and manganese are provided.

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    The record contains information on leaf trait and stable isotope data of <i>Eucalyptus salubris</i> trees in the Credo Flux tower area, from the Great Western Woodlands Site. Data on individual tree height, stem circumference and leaf traits such as leaf thickness, leaf mass, leaf density, specific leaf area, leaf chemical data, including the d<sup>13</sup>C and d<sup>15</sup>N content are provided. In addition, data on soil chemical analysis from the site are provided.

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    A total of 53 native Australian species (52x C3, 1x C4) were sampled from 22 plant families and 7 growth forms along a transect in WA spanning 9.56 degrees latitude and 6.85 degrees longitude. Samples were collected using the nationally-accepted AusPlots Rangelands methodology. Samples were stored to preserve isotopic signatures and analysed using standard techniques for mass spectroscopy, including internationally-calibrated standards. Technical replicates of 13% showed very low drift (0.07).