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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Organ Pipes National Park, Volcanic Plains Bioregion, Victoria. </br><br> Pre-European reference-analogue vegetation: Treeless basalt plain predominantly grassland dominated by Kangaroo Grass <em>Themeda triandra</em> with an array of inter-tussock species. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1830: Indigenous people manage the area</li> <li>1835: Sheep grazing commenced (shepherds)</li> <li>1851: Alienated from the Crown as freehold and fenced</li> <li>1851-1965: Area managed for dairying, an orchard and cropping and grazing modified pastures</li> <li>1965: Agricultural production abandoned</li> <li>1965-1986: Area minimally managed</li> <li>1972: Organ Pipes National Park declared</li> <li>1986-1992: Commenced species re-introduced site with supplemental plantings. Area managed to control weed and further incursions</li> <li>1989-2003: Repeated monitoring. Area lightly grazed by rabbits and macropods</li> <li>1993: Site burnt [prescribed fire]; supplemental re-vegetation with indigenous local species </li> <li>1995: Site was burnt [prescribed fire]</li> <li>1997: Site was burnt [prescribed fire] followed by drought</li> <li>2003: Ceased monitoring and enhancement to the site</li> <li>2004-10: Minimal intervention.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about the Taroom Shire Potters Flat. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: The site was originally brigalow <em>Acacia harpophylla</em>, mixed community associated with overstorey several species, including <em>Eucalyptus coolabah</em>, <em>E. cambageana</em>, <em>Casuarina cristata</em>, and a range of understorey species, grassy woodlands and open forests. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1860: Area used for sheep grazing by shepherds</li> <li>1870: Permanent fences established</li> <li>1875: Start of continuous or set stocking with sheep</li> <li>1880: Incursion of prickly pear started</li> <li>1904-1929: Continuous grazing with sheep</li> <li>1929-1932: Gradual increase in cattle numbers, decline in sheep</li> <li>1930-1935: Land clearance via ringbarking</li> <li>1932-1970: Almost continuous grazing with cattle - relatively low stock numbers</li> <li>1935: Prickly pear had been destroyed</li> <li>1940-1955: Re-clearing brigalow regrowth with axes and fallen timber burnt</li> <li>1956-1960: Brigalow regrowth left unchecked</li> <li>1960-1962: Brigalow regrowth pulled mechanically and burnt</li> <li>1962-1970: Regrowth commenced restabilising without treatment or control</li> <li>1970: Area/s designated as blocks to be left as shelter belts for cattle</li> <li>1970: Commenced managing areas surrounding the site regrowth (i.e. shelter belt) mechanically</li> <li>1971-2010: Areas surrounding the site regularly and intensively managed with ploughing, fertilising the pasture and cropping</li> <li>1971-2010: Site almost continually used as shelter belt for cattle - high use.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Blundells Flat, ex-coupe 427A, ACT. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: the site vegetation was originally brown barrel (<em>Eucalyptus fastigata</em>), growing in association with ribbon gum (<em>E. viminalis</em>). </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1788: Unmodified and intact tall open eucalypt forest; forest unaffected</li> <li>1860: Area burnt by severe wildfire</li> <li>1915: Water catchment area declared for Canberra –forest unaffected</li> <li>1939: Area burnt by severe wildfire</li> <li>1915-1954: Area managed as water catchment area – frequent forest fires to control fuel loads</li> <li>1955: Commenced selective logging of mainly brown barrel (<em>E. fastigata</em>)</li> <li>1956: Clear-felled remaining wet sclerophyll forest and pushed timber into windrows with a bulldozer</li> <li>1958: Felled timber burnt in February</li> <li>1958: 1<sup>st</sup> rotation radiata (Monterey) pine (<em>P. radiata</em>) planted by hand</li> <li>1960: Controlled competing regrowth native vegetation, manually with axes, slashers, or hoes</li> <li>1986: 1<sup>st</sup> rotation trees logged and crawler tractor used to snig timber off site</li> <li>1987: Slash left on the ground to decompose - no ripping - too steep</li> <li>1988: Roundup sprayed to kill regrowth. 2<sup>nd</sup> rotation <em>P. radiata</em> planted. NPK fertiliser spread around every seedling by hand</li> <li>1990: Site hand cut the regrowth using brush hooks e.g. eucalypts, acacia and 1<sup>st</sup> rotation pine seedlings</li> <li>1999: 2<sup>nd</sup> rotation pines thinned and pruned. Thinnings were left on the ground to decay</li> <li>2003: Area burnt by severe wildfire killed all pines</li> <li>2003: Sterile rye corn grass seed was sown across the coupe using light aircraft to stabilise erodible soils</li> <li>2003: Killed pines and native regrowth pushed over and windrowed with a bulldozer</li> <li>2004: Site declared minimal use - rehabilitation</li> <li>2005: Contractors were engaged to manually remove pine seedlings - pines were defined as a weed. Other weeds not controlled</li> <li>2005-2012: Site left to rehabilitate.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details for the Big Scrub Rocky Creek Dam, NSW. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark - analogue vegetation: The site was originally Lowland Subtropical Rainforest on basalt-derived and alluvial soils. The forest is distinguished by its dense, uneven canopy comprised of typically two to three tall tree layers. Eucalypts and brushbox (<em>Lophostemon confertus</em>) may be present as sparse emergent. Characteristic life-forms include buttressed trees, strangler figs, stands of bangalow palms (<em>Archontophoenix cunninghamiana</em>), woody vines and large epiphytes. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1840: Intact rainforest</li> <li>1862: Area opened-up for selection</li> <li>1900: Cedar getters select large trees</li> <li>1910: Rainforest cleared and converted to pasture for dairying</li> <li>1911-1948: Area used for grazing dairy cattle</li> <li>1948: Area acquired for public use (water storage)</li> <li>1950-1989: Minimal management - land in transition (open public space)</li> <li>1950-1952: Rocky Creek Dam constructed</li> <li>1983-1990: Commenced experiments using assisted regeneration on small test plots</li> <li>1991-2000: Large scale assisted regeneration (25&nbsp;ha) by converting lantana thickets to rainforest</li> <li>2001-2011: Minimal management.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Belconnen Naval Transmitter Station in ACT, Australia. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: the original vegetation for the site Belconnen Naval Transmitter Station was a temperate grassland in an ecological community dominated by native species of perennial tussock grasses. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>Up to late 1820s the area was managed by indigenous Ngunnawal people</li> <li>1830s: Area first grazed by sheep and cattle with the aid of shepherds</li> <li>1860: Fences were established and continuous stocking commenced</li> <li>1900: Patches of woodland areas on higher ground were partly cleared</li> <li>1900-39: High likelihood of moderate to heavy grazing pressure due to sheep and cattle</li> <li>1940-1993: Area managed as a naval transmission station</li> <li>1940-92: Area managed for sheep grazing under continuous grazing</li> <li>1970: Secure people and kangaroo proof fence established</li> <li>1993: Sheep removed from the site</li> <li>1995: mowers used to manage the grass</li> <li>1997-2008: Kangaroo population increased to unacceptable levels</li> <li>2006: Naval transmission towers demolished, area continued to have a secure people proof fence</li> <li>2008: Kangaroo population culled to reduce grazing pressure</li> <li>2011: Site managed for nature conservation values.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Talaheni Horse Paddock, Murrambatman, NSW. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: The site was originally a <em>Themeda sp.</em> grassy woodland. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1830: Grazing of native vegetation - shepherds</li> <li>1900-1961: Fencing and continuous grazing with sheep</li> <li>1905: Overstorey thinned by ringbarking</li> <li>1906-1920: Continuous removal of suckers and regrowth</li> <li>1962: Remaining larger trees pushed over with a bull dozer</li> <li>1962-1974: Continuous grazing with cattle</li> <li>1968-1978: Four applications of superphosphate and exotic pasture species</li> <li>1975-1982: Continuous grazing with horses</li> <li>1983-1984: Continuous grazing with sheep</li> <li>1985: Continuous grazing ceased</li> <li>1986: Commenced rehabilitation</li> <li>1987-2008: Area lightly grazed using rotational grazing with sheep</li> <li>2008-2010: All stock removed - increasing high numbers of kangaroos.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Mulligans Flat Nature Reserve. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: the site was originally woodlands on the deeper soils of the lower slopes and flats (<em>Eucalyptus blakelyi</em> and <em>Eucalyptus melliodora</em>) (McIntyre et al. 2010). </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1819: Area managed by indigenous Ngunnawal people</li> <li>1826: Sheep grazing with shepherds commenced</li> <li>1860: Fences constructed - continuous stocking with sheep commenced</li> <li>1920: Fallen timber collected for firewood started</li> <li>1994: Mulligans Flat Nature Reserve established</li> <li>1995: Continuous stocking with sheep grazing ceased</li> <li>1995: Collection of firewood ceased</li> <li>1996: Kangaroo population begins to rapidly increase</li> <li>2006: Predator proof fence completed</li> <li>2008: Commenced annual removal of pest species of plants and animals</li> <li>2010: Commenced annual kangaroo cull.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about the Cumberland State Forest, Old Abandoned Arboretum site, NSW, Australia. </br><br> Pre-European reference-analogue vegetation: The Cumberland State Forest is part of the Blue Gum High Forest (Daniel Connolly pers comm). It is a tall wet sclerophyll forest found on Wianamatta group Ashfield Shale. Blue Gum High Forest is dominated by Sydney blue gum (<em>Eucalyptus saligna</em>), blackbutt (<em>E. pilularis</em>), and turpentine (<em>Syncarpia glomulifera</em>) with a number of other eucalypts occurring patchily. A sparse open cover of small trees includes a variety of sclerophyllous and mesophyllous species. The ground layer is variable in composition and cover; including ferny, grassy or herbaceous and/or vines and climbers. The characteristics of the ground cover are related to the topgraphic position. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1788- Area managed by indigenous Darug people</li> <li>1788-1824: Region explored, un-modified native forest blue gum/ironbark on shale</li> <li>1825: Parcel selected by Mr Shepherd</li> <li>1860: Tree cover likely to have been thinned - selective logging for fences and housing</li> <li>1826-1907: Grazing stock on native pastures</li> <li>1908: Land parcel cleared and sown to improved pasture, and evidence of chicken farm and fruit orchards</li> <li>1909-1937: Managed as improved pasture and grazing</li> <li>1937-38: Purchased by NSW Forestry Commission</li> <li>1941-42: Remaining native forest trees cleared to establish an arboretum</li> <li>1943-45: Arboretum planted as a future urban working forest</li> <li>1946-73: Arboretum managed for education and demonstration - infilling regrowth native forest observed</li> <li>1974-84: Arboretum increasing managed for recreation - infilling regrowth native forest observed</li> <li>1985-2012: Area managed for recreation (ex-arboretum and regrowth native forest).</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Big Scrub, Tintenbar site. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: The site was originally lowland subtropical rainforest on basalt-derived and alluvial soils below 250&nbsp;m asl and further than 2&nbsp;km from the coast. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1788: Indigenous land management - Goori people</li> <li>1823-25: Explorers Oxley followed by Rous traversed the area</li> <li>1842: Cedar getters ‘moved in’</li> <li>1870: Portion or survey plan prepared for the Tintenbar property</li> <li>1880: Camphor was planted as a shade tree in Lismore 1880s along streets</li> <li>1885: Brush had been largely selected and slightly cleared</li> <li>1900: Clearing done with brush hooks. Small trees were cut down with an axe and large trees were cut down using a cross-cut saw. Brush and fallen timber was burnt</li> <li>1900: Basalt rock removed from paddocks and placed around borders as field stone fencing, Paddock cleared of floaters so it could be ploughed</li> <li>1901: Aggressive pasture grasses established. Initially this was <em>Paspalum</em></li> <li>1901-1978: Dairying and pasture improvement - mainly Kikuyu and fertiliser added</li> <li>1968: Observed incursions of camphor in creeks and gullies but not removed or controlled</li> <li>1979: Changed from dairying to beef cattle production</li> <li>1980-87: Cattle removed - destocked</li> <li>1981-87: Observed incursions of weeds into the former dairy pasture including lantana, barna or elephant (<em>Pennisetum purpureum</em>) grass and tobacco bush and some camphor but not removed or controlled</li> <li>1988: Commenced agisting cattle</li> <li>1990-93: Agisted horses and cattle</li> <li>1993: Ceased agisting cattle and horses</li> <li>1994-2011: Dense stands of camphor left unchecked.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Goorooyarroo Nature Reserve Site 3. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: The site was originally woodlands on the deeper soils of the lower slopes and flats (<em>Eucalyptus blakelyi</em> and <em>Eucalyptus melliodora</em>) (McIntyre et al., 2010). </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1819: Area managed by indigenous Ngunnawal people</li> <li>1826: Sheep grazing with shepherds commenced</li> <li>1860: Fences constructed - continuous stocking with sheep commenced in large paddocks</li> <li>1920-1925: Large old and dead trees felled for firewood for Canberra market</li> <li>1961: 50 acre paddock fenced as a future lambing paddock</li> <li>1962-1965: Remaining trees ringbarked, left to stand to dry out and sold as firewood</li> <li>1966-1978: Paddock converted to improved pasture. Repeated resown and fertilized</li> <li>1979-2004: Holding paddock for lambing ewes</li> <li>1994: Mulligans Flat Nature Reserve established</li> <li>2004: Continuous stocking with sheep grazing ceased</li> <li>2005: Kangaroo proof fence erected</li> <li>2008: Kangaroo population begins to rapidly increase</li> <li>2008: Commenced annual removal of pest species of plants and animals</li> <li>2009: Introduced large logs to the site from off the Reserve</li> <li>2010: Commenced annual kangaroo cull.</li></ul></br>