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    This dataset presents the demographic monitoring (growth and survival) of 81 tree species based on repeated stem measurement data from 20, 0.5 ha (100 m x 50 m) permanent moist forest plots in northern Queensland, Australia from 1971 to 2019, as well as four additional plots of 0.1 to 1 ha whose monitoring began in the 2000s. The plots have a rainfall range of 1200 to over 6000 mm, represent eleven vegetation types, six parent materials, and range from 15 m to 1500 m above sea level. Except for minor disturbances associated with selective logging on two plots, the plots were established in old growth forest and all plots have thereafter been protected. Plots were regularly censused and at each census the diameter at breast height (DBH) of all stems ≥10 cm DBH were recorded. We only report the data for the 81 species studied in Bauman et al. 2022 (Nature), here. We also provide the climatology of these plots as well as the temperature, vapour pressure deficit, and maximum climatological water deficit of all intervals separating consecutive censuses, as used in the analyses of Bauman et al. 2022.

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    This data set is the result of the investigation on the response of littoral and floodplain vegetation and soil moisture flux to weir pool raising in 2015. The data was collected over 18 months between August 2015 and December 2016- before, during and after the weir pool levels were raised. The data set contains information on Tree Condition including crown extent and density, bark form, epicormic growth and state, reproduction, crown growth, leaf die off and damage, and mistletoe. Leaf Water Potential, taken predawn and in the middle of the day. Plant Area Index/Canopy Cover measurements using hemispherical photos. Soil Chemistry measurements- total soil moisture (gravimetric water content; %), soil suction (or soil matric potential), Electrical Conductivity and soil pH.

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    The Australian cosmic-ray soil moisture monitoring network was first established in 2010 to provide Australian and global researchers with spatially distributed intermediate scale soil moisture observations. A cosmic-ray sensor (CRS) provides continuous estimates of soil moisture over an area of approximately 30 hectares by measuring naturally generated fast neutrons (energy 10–1000 eV) that are produced by cosmic rays passing through the Earth’s atmosphere. The neutron intensity above the land surface is inversely correlated with soil moisture as it responds to the hydrogen contained in the soil and to a lesser degree to plant and soil carbon compounds. The cosmic-ray technique is also passive, non-contact, and is largely insensitive to bulk density, surface roughness, the physical state of water, and soil texture. The scale of CRS measurements fills the void between point scale sensor measurements and large scale satellite observations. The depth of measurements varies with the moisture content of the soil but is typically between 10-30 cm. The depth of observations is reported as ‘effective depth’. <br> The CosmOz network is expanding as new sensors are added over time. The initial network was funded by CSIRO Land and Water but more recently TERN has funded work to maintain the network add new sensors and deliver data more efficiently. The standard CRS installation includes; a cosmic-ray neutron tube, a rain gauge (2m high), temperature and humidity sensors, and an atmospheric pressure sensor. Measures of all parameters are reported at an hourly interval. Each CRS requires an in-field calibration across the footprint of measurements to convert neutron counts to soil moisture content. The calibration includes collection of soil samples for bulk density, lattice water content and soil organic carbon.<br> The Australia CosmOz network consists of <a href="https://cosmoz.csiro.au/sites">19 stations</a>. The extent of the network and available data can be seen at the CosmOz network web page: <a href="https://cosmoz.csiro.au/">https://cosmoz.csiro.au</a>. The data is also accessible from the <a href="https://landscapes-cosmoz-api.tern.org.au/rest/doc">TERN Cosmoz REST API</a>.<br> The calibration and correction procedures used by the network are described by <a href="https://doi.org/10.1002/2013WR015138">Hawdon et al. 2014 </a>.