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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Big Scrub, Tintenbar site. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: The site was originally lowland subtropical rainforest on basalt-derived and alluvial soils below 250&nbsp;m asl and further than 2&nbsp;km from the coast. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1788: Indigenous land management - Goori people</li> <li>1823-25: Explorers Oxley followed by Rous traversed the area</li> <li>1842: Cedar getters ‘moved in’</li> <li>1870: Portion or survey plan prepared for the Tintenbar property</li> <li>1880: Camphor was planted as a shade tree in Lismore 1880s along streets</li> <li>1885: Brush had been largely selected and slightly cleared</li> <li>1900: Clearing done with brush hooks. Small trees were cut down with an axe and large trees were cut down using a cross-cut saw. Brush and fallen timber was burnt</li> <li>1900: Basalt rock removed from paddocks and placed around borders as field stone fencing, Paddock cleared of floaters so it could be ploughed</li> <li>1901: Aggressive pasture grasses established. Initially this was <em>Paspalum</em></li> <li>1901-1978: Dairying and pasture improvement - mainly Kikuyu and fertiliser added</li> <li>1968: Observed incursions of camphor in creeks and gullies but not removed or controlled</li> <li>1979: Changed from dairying to beef cattle production</li> <li>1980-87: Cattle removed - destocked</li> <li>1981-87: Observed incursions of weeds into the former dairy pasture including lantana, barna or elephant (<em>Pennisetum purpureum</em>) grass and tobacco bush and some camphor but not removed or controlled</li> <li>1988: Commenced agisting cattle</li> <li>1990-93: Agisted horses and cattle</li> <li>1993: Ceased agisting cattle and horses</li> <li>1994-2011: Dense stands of camphor left unchecked.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details for the Wooroonooran Nature Refuge. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: the original vegetation for the site was a complex mesophyll vine forest on basaltic red loams on wet uplands, altitude 720&nbsp;m with 4.421&nbsp;mm rainfall (av annual records for the period 1993-2011, source: Peter Stanton). </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1800: Indigenous management of mesophyll rainforest by Ngadyan people</li> <li>1924: Start of selective logging of high value timber species</li> <li>1930: Finish of selective logging of high value timber species - intent to convert rainforest to pasture</li> <li>1931: Start of land clearing of the previously logged forest - intent to convert rainforest to pasture</li> <li>1938: End of land clearing of the previously logged forest - forest trash burnt</li> <li>1939: Start of intensive soil and pasture management - soil not ploughed - aggressive pasture grasses sown into ash bed</li> <li>1940: Start of grazing - pasture for dairying</li> <li>1958: End of grazing, planted pasture for dairying. Pastures infertile. All livestock removed</li> <li>1959: Start of land abandonment and minimal use</li> <li>1983: Commenced large scale spraying and poisoning and physical removal of lantana</li> <li>1993: Regrowth rainforest (complex mesophyll vine forest) in gullies and on lower slopes - 50% of lot 2</li> <li>1994: Continued large scale spraying and poisoning of lantana and carpet grass</li> <li>2003: Site formally gazetted as Wooroonooran Nature Refuge by WTMA</li> <li>2011: Site continues to be manage for multiple values: timber reserve, biodiversity and habitat values.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details for the Big Scrub Rocky Creek Dam, NSW. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark - analogue vegetation: The site was originally Lowland Subtropical Rainforest on basalt-derived and alluvial soils. The forest is distinguished by its dense, uneven canopy comprised of typically two to three tall tree layers. Eucalypts and brushbox (<em>Lophostemon confertus</em>) may be present as sparse emergent. Characteristic life-forms include buttressed trees, strangler figs, stands of bangalow palms (<em>Archontophoenix cunninghamiana</em>), woody vines and large epiphytes. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1840: Intact rainforest</li> <li>1862: Area opened-up for selection</li> <li>1900: Cedar getters select large trees</li> <li>1910: Rainforest cleared and converted to pasture for dairying</li> <li>1911-1948: Area used for grazing dairy cattle</li> <li>1948: Area acquired for public use (water storage)</li> <li>1950-1989: Minimal management - land in transition (open public space)</li> <li>1950-1952: Rocky Creek Dam constructed</li> <li>1983-1990: Commenced experiments using assisted regeneration on small test plots</li> <li>1991-2000: Large scale assisted regeneration (25&nbsp;ha) by converting lantana thickets to rainforest</li> <li>2001-2011: Minimal management.</li></ul></br>