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    This dataset contains global dryland literature abstracts from over the last 75 years (8218 articles) to identify areas in arid ecology that are well studied and topics that are emerging.

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    Invertebrates dominate the animal world in terms of abundance, diversity and biomass and play critical roles in maintaining ecosystem function. Despite their obvious importance, disproportionate research attention remains focused on vertebrates, with knowledge and understanding of invertebrate ecology still lacking. Due to their inherent advantages, usage of camera traps in ecology has risen dramatically over the last three decades, especially for research on mammals. However, few studies have used cameras to reliably detect fauna such as invertebrates or used cameras to examine specific aspects of invertebrate ecology. Twenty-four Reconyx PC800 HyperfireTM cameras were deployed on 7th July 2016 at Main Camp and left until 12th October 2016 (98 days, or 2352 h of deployment) in the Simpson Desert, south-western Queensland, capturing 372 time-lapse images of Wolf spiders (Family Lycosidae). Images were tagged with camera location, position, angle, camera ID and presence of lycosids. Additionally, spotlight surveys were conducted in October 2016 every hour between dusk (19:30 h) and dawn (05:30 h) over three nights with a total of 352 lycosids observed. This data set was used to determine whether: 1) camera traps provide a viable method for detecting wolf spiders, 2) diel activity patterns of the spiders can be ascertained, and 3) patterns in spider activity vary with environmental conditions, specifically between burned and unburned habitats and the crests and bases of sand dunes. This data presents a useful example of the utility of cameras as a tool for determining the diel activity patterns and habitat use of larger arthropods such as wolf spiders. Please note: Camera trap images are not provided and only species occurrence records are included. Also, image files were renamed after collection, resulting in a number versus time conflict. However, dates and times of sightings provided are correct.

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    The lesser hairy­footed dunnart (<i>Sminthopsis youngsoni, Dasyuridae</i>) is a generalist marsupial insectivore in arid Australia, but consumes wolf spiders (<i>Lycosa spp., Lycosidae</i>) disproportionately often relative to their availability. Here, we tested whether lycosids have relatively high energy or nutrient contents compared to other invertebrates, and hence whether these aspects of food quality can explain selective predation of lycosids by <i>S.youngsoni</i>. Energy, lipid and protein composition of representatives of 10 arthropod families that are eaten by <i>S. youngsoni</i> in the Simpson Desert were ascertained using microbomb calorimetry, chloroform-methanol extraction and Dumas combustion. Differences between invertebrate groups were assessed using separate analyses of variance (ANOVAs) and appropriate post-hoc tests. These analyses were performed using this data.

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    The lesser hairy-footed dunnart (<i>Sminthopsis youngsoni, Dasyuridae</i>) is a generalist marsupial insectivore in arid Australia, but consumes wolf spiders (<i>Lycosa spp., Lycosidae</i>) disproportionately often relative to their availability. This project tested the hypothesis that this disproportionate predation is a product of frequent encounter rates between the interactants due to high overlap in their diets and use of space and time. This data set focuses on dietary overlap, with diet and predatory behaviour of wolf spiders (<i>Lycosa spp.</i>), the lesser hairy-footed dunnart (<i>Sminthopsis youngsoni</i>) and prowling spiders (<i>Miturga spp.</i>, which represent other common invertebrate predators) were determined by tracking individuals and directly observing prey captures. Seventeen wolf spiders, 10 prowling spiders and 5 dunnarts were captured from Main Camp site in the Simpson Desert, south-western Queensland during 2016 with 30, 13 and 13 direct prey captures witnessed for each species respectively. This data is used for calculating overlap between prey taxa and prey size between these predators using the symmetrical version of MacArthur and Levin's and Pianka's overlap equation. However, it can also be used as a case study for calculating overlap between other species-groups.

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    The lesser hairy-footed dunnart (<i>Sminthopsis youngsoni, Dasyuridae</i>) is a generalist marsupial insectivore in arid Australia, but consumes wolf spiders (<i>Lycosa spp., Lycosidae</i>) disproportionately often relative to their availability. This project tested the hypothesis that this disproportionate predation is a product of frequent encounter rates between the interactants due to high overlap in their diets and use of space and time. This data set focuses on overlap in the diel acttivity patterns wolf spiders (<i>Lycosa spp.</i>) and the lesser hairy-footed dunnart (<i>Sminthopsis youngsoni</i>) in the Simpson Desert, south-western Queensland Australia. To quantify the temporal activity of lycosids, spotlight surveys were conducted in October 2016 every hour between dusk (19:30 h) and dawn (05:30 h) over three nights. Additionally, remote camera traps were deployed to further quantify patterns in the activity of lycosids and S. youngsoni. Twenty-four Reconyx PC800 HyperfireTM cameras were deployed on 7th July 2016 at Main Camp and left until 12th October 2016 (98 days, or 2352 h of deployment). Images were tagged with camera location, position, angle, camera ID number, species and confidence and date and time data were extracted from each image. This data was used to identify mean activity times for each species (with confidence intervals) and to assess overlap in nocturnal activity patterns between lycosids and S. youngsoni, and thus the potential for competition and predation using the Overlap v 0.2.7 package in R. This data presents a useful example for investigating how the 'Overlap' package works and the benefits it provides.

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    A total of 53 native Australian species (52x C3, 1x C4) were sampled from 22 plant families and 7 growth forms along a transect in WA spanning 9.56 degrees latitude and 6.85 degrees longitude. Samples were collected using the nationally-accepted AusPlots Rangelands methodology. Samples were stored to preserve isotopic signatures and analysed using standard techniques for mass spectroscopy, including internationally-calibrated standards. Technical replicates of 13% showed very low drift (0.07).

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    The dataset contains biological data collected 2005, 2012 as part of the Tanami Regional Biodiversity Monitoring (Tanami RBM) program. The Tanami RBM program uses 89 sites across the Tanami region, central-west Northern Territory. At these sites, flora and fauna are surveyed during the late-dry (usually November-December) or late-wet (usually February-March) seasons. Each site comprises a 200 m x 300 m survey plot from which the data are recorded using various survey methods: site descriptions, vegetation transects, bird surveys, small vertebrate trapping, and tracking surveys. This dataset contains the data from eight surveys undertaken between 2005 and 2012: six in the late-dry and two in the late-wet seasons. The precision of site locations has been reduced to 0.1 decimal degree, which is approximately 10 km at the study region. This denaturing is because some sites contain threatened and/or sensitive species that might be at risk from collection or disturbance. The dataset contains species information from vegetation surveys and fauna species captures and observations. The data can be used to: [1] Review the outcomes of the survey methodologies [2] Presence data of the species recorded [3] Impacts of mining on the region's flora and fauna e.g. what is the spatial and temporal impact of mining activities on biota? [4] Conservation and biodiversity e.g. what are the spatial and temporal trends in the occurrence of key/threatened species? How do land units/systems change over time?

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    The lesser hairy­footed dunnart (<i>Sminthopsis youngsoni, Dasyuridae</i>) is a generalist marsupial insectivore in arid Australia, but consumes wolf spiders (<i>Lycosa spp., Lycosidae</i>) disproportionately often relative to their availability. This project tested the hypothesis that this disproportionate predation is a product of frequent encounter rates between the interactants due to high overlap in their diets and use of space and time. This data set focuses on overlap in the use of different microhabitats of wolf spiders (<i>Lycosa spp.</i>) and the lesser hairy­footed dunnart (<i>Sminthopsis youngsoni</i>) in the Simpson Desert, south­western Queensland Australia. Microhabitat use was determined by estimating the percentage cover of seven microhabitat variables and distance to nearest cover along trails left by individuals of each species­ group and a randomly orientated (control) trail for each actual trail as a measure of the availability of each microhabitat within the local environment. Trail length was also recorded and data was collected across 16 trapping grids at Main Camp during July and October (winter and Spring) in 2017. Differences in microhabitat use between trail types (actual vs control) and species (lycosids vs dunnarts) were assessed using non­metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) and permutational analyses of variance (PERMANOVA). These analyses were performed using this data.