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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.4.17) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br><br> The Yarramundi Irrigated site is an improved, managed pasture on the Western Sydney University Hawkesbury campus. Original woodland vegetation was cleared prior to 1950. A mixture of native and exotic grasses and forbs dominate the site, which is used by cattle in an intensively managed grazing operation. The flux tower was established in October of 2019 and is managed by the Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment, with partial support from TERN and WSU Office of Estate and Commercial (Farm Production Unit).</br> <br>The climate is warm-temperate, with annual rainfall averaging 728&nbsp;mm, mean maximum temperature in January of 30.4&deg;C and mean minimum temperature in July of 3.6&deg;C (BOM station 067105). The elevation of the site is about 20&nbsp;m asl and the topography is flat. The soil is sandy loam in texture, organic carbon content is <1%.</br>

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.4.17) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br> <br /> The flux station was established in 2017 in Wandoo Woodland, which is surrounded by broadacre farming. About 80% of the overstorey cover is <em>Eucalyptus accedens</em>. Climate information comes from the nearby Pingelly BOM AWS station 010626 (1991 to 2016) and shows mean annual precipitation is approximately 445&nbsp;mm with highest rainfall in June and July of 81&nbsp;mm each month. Maximum and minimum annual rainfall is 775 and 217&nbsp;mm, respectively. Maximum temperatures range from 31.9&nbsp;°C (in Jan) to 15.4&nbsp;°C (in July), while minimum temperatures range from 5.5&nbsp;°C (in July) to 16.0&nbsp;°C (in Feb). The Noongar people are the traditional owners at Boyagin. <br />

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.4.17) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br> <br>Ti Tree East site was established in July 2012 and is managed by the University of Technology Sydney. Pine Hill Station is a functioning cattle station that has been in operation for longer than 50 years. However, the east side has not been stocked in over three years. The site is a mosaic of the primary semi-arid biomes of central Australia: grassy mulga woodland and <em>Corymbia/Triodia</em> savanna.The woodland is characterised by a mulga (<em>Acacia aneura</em>) canopy, which is 4.85&nbsp;m tall on average. The soil is red sand overlying an 8&nbsp;m deep water table. Elevation of the site is 553&nbsp;m above sea level, and the terrain is flat. Mean annual precipitation at the nearby (30&nbsp;km to the south) Bureau of Meteorology station is 305.9&nbsp;mm but ranges between 100&nbsp;mm in 2009 to 750&nbsp;mm in 2010. Predominant wind directions are from the southeast and east.</br> <br>The instrument mast is 10&nbsp;m tall. Fluxes of heat, water vapour and carbon are measured using the open-path eddy covariance technique at 9.81&nbsp;m. Supplementary measurements above the canopy include temperature and humidity (9.81&nbsp;m), windspeed and wind direction (8.28&nbsp;m), downwelling and upwelling shortwave and longwave radiation (9.9&nbsp;m). Precipitation is monitored in the savanna (2.5&nbsp;m). Supplementary measurements within and below the canopy include barometric pressure (2&nbsp;m). Below ground soil measurements are made beneath Triodia, mulga and grassy understorey and include ground heat flux (0.08&nbsp;m), soil temperature (0.02&nbsp;m - 0.06&nbsp;m) and soil moisture (0 - 0.1&nbsp;m, 0.1 - 0.3&nbsp;m, 0.6 - 0.8&nbsp;m and 1.0 - 1.2&nbsp;m).</br>

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.4.17) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br> <br>The site is located on a low lying plain dominated by Mitchell Grass (<em>Astrebla</em> spp.). Elevation of the site is close to 250&nbsp;m and mean annual precipitation at a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site is 640&nbsp;mm. Maximum temperatures range from 28.4&nbsp;°C (in June/ July) to 39.1&nbsp;°C (in December), while minimum temperatures range from 11.2&nbsp;°C (in July) to 24.4&nbsp;°C (in December).</br> <br>The instrument mast is 5&nbsp;m tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements are taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall and net radiation are measured. Soil heat fluxes are measured and soil moisture content is gathered using time domain reflectometry.</br> <br>Ancillary measurements taken at the site include LAI, leaf-scale physiological properties (gas exchange, leaf isotope ratios, nitrogen and chlorophyll concentrations), vegetation optical properties and soil physical properties. Airborne based remote sensing (Lidar and hyperspectral measurements) was carried out at the site in September 2008. Biomass harvest measured: mean live biomass 0.00&nbsp;gm<sup>-2</sup> (standard error: 0.00), mean standing dead biomass 163.42&nbsp;gm<sup>-2</sup> (standard error: 16.73), mean litter biomass 148.99&nbsp;gm<sup>-2</sup> (standard error: 21.32), total mean biomass 312.40&nbsp;gm<sup>-2</sup> (standard error: 30.80). Soil consists of: clay 14.47%, silt 51.23%, sand 34.30%.</br>

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.4.17) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br> <br> The Calperum Chowilla site was established in July 2010 and is managed by the University of Adelaide, coordinated by Prof Wayne Meyer and Prof David Chittleborough of the Landscape Futures Program as part of the Environment Institute. This is a former sheep grazing property that has been destocked and is being managed as a conservation area in this type of ecosystem. The landscape is flat with a series of low east–west sand dunes. The dunes are remnants of a previous dry era and are mostly now stabilized by mallee (multi-stemmed Eucalypt trees) and various shrubs. It is a semi-arid environment fringing the River Murray floodplains of the Riverland. <br>

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.4.17) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).<br /> <br /> The site is classified as an open woodland savanna. The overstory is co-dominated by tree species <em>Eucalyptus miniata</em> and <em>Eucalyptus tentrodonata</em>, and average tree height is 14-16&nbsp;m. Elevation of the site is close to 64&nbsp;m and mean annual precipitation is 1750&nbsp;mm. Maximum temperatures range from 30.4&nbsp;°C (in July) to 33.2&nbsp;°C (in November), while minimum temperatures range from 19.3&nbsp;°C (in July) to 25.4&nbsp;°C (in November). Therefore, the maximum and minimum range varies from 7&nbsp;°C (wet season) to 11&nbsp;°C (dry season).<br /><br /> The instrument mast is 23&nbsp;m tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements are taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation are measured above the canopy. Soil heat fluxes are measured and soil moisture content is gathered using time domain reflectometry.<br /><br />

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.4.17) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br><br> Great Western Woodlands (GWW) comprise a 16 million&nbsp;ha mosaic of temperate woodland, shrubland and mallee vegetation in south-west Western Australia. The region has remained relatively intact since European settlement, owing to the variable rainfall and lack of readily accessible groundwater. The woodland component is globally unique in that nowhere else do woodlands occur at as little as 220&nbsp;mm mean annual rainfall. Further, other temperate woodlands around the world have typically become highly fragmented and degraded through agricultural use. Great Western Woodlands Site was established in 2012 in the Credo Conservation Reserve. The site is in semi-arid woodland and was operated as a pastoral lease from 1907 to 2007. The core 1&nbsp;ha plot is characterised by <em>Eucalyptus salmonophloia</em> (salmon gum), with <em>Eucalyptus salubris</em> and <em>Eucalyptus clelandii</em> dominating other research plots. The flux station is located in salmon gum woodland.

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.4.17) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br> <br>The Alpine Peatland flux station was established in 2017 at Heathy Spur I, an alpine sphagnum bog on the Bogong High Plains recognised by Parks Victoria as a reference ecosystem for this endangered ecological community. The vegetation is dominated by the peat-forming moss <em>Sphagnum cristatum</em>, as well as typical peatland species including candle heath (<em>Richea continentis</em>), alpine baeckea (<em>Baeckea gunniana</em>) and rope rush (<em>Empodisma minus</em>). The Alpine Peatland tower typically experiences a mild growing season from October to June and 2-3 months of snow cover from July to September.<br />

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.4.17) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br><br> The site is situated within a wetland that flooded seasonally. The principal vegetation is <em>Oryza rufipogon</em>, <em>Pseudoraphis spinescens</em> and <em>Eleocharis dulcis</em>. The elevation is approximately 4&nbsp;m, with a neighbouring Bureau of Meteorology station recording 1411&nbsp;mm mean annual precipitation. Maximum temperatures range from 31.3&nbsp;°C (in June and July) to 35.6&nbsp;°C (in October), while minimum temperatures range from 14.9&nbsp;°C (in July) to 23.9&nbsp;°C (in December and February). Maximum temperatures vary on a seasonal basis by approximately 4.3&nbsp;°C and minimum temperatures by 9.0&nbsp;°C.<br /><br /> The instrument mast is 15&nbsp;m tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements are taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation are measured above the canopy. Soil heat fluxes are measured and soil moisture content is gathered using time domain reflectometry. Ancillary measurements being taken at the site include LAI, leaf-scale physiological properties (gas exchange, leaf isotope ratios, nitrogen and chlorophyll concentrations), vegetation optical properties and soil physical properties. Airborne-based remote sensing (Lidar and hyperspectral measurements) was carried out across the site in September 2008.

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.4.17) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br> <br>This is a topographically flat area, primarily comprised of the following soil types: sandy loams, scattered clays, red brown earths, transitional red brown earth, sands over clay and deep sands. Stream valleys and layered soil and sedimentary materials are found across the landscape.</br> <br>The flux station tower extends to 20&nbsp;m, however flux measurements are recorded from slightly lower than this. Mean annual precipitation from the nearby Bureau of Meteorology is 465&nbsp;mm. Maximum temperatures ranged from 16.6&nbsp;°C (in July) to 37.4&nbsp;°C (in January), while minimum temperatures ranged from 11.8&nbsp;°C (in July) to 29.0&nbsp;°C (in January). Maximum temperatures varied on a seasonal basis by approximately 20.8&nbsp;°C and minimum temperatures by 17.2&nbsp;°C.</br> <br>The site is within a wider research area (60 x 60&nbsp;km) that supports a network of flux stations, which have been in operation since late 2001.</br>