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The Gingin flux station is located in coastal heath Banksia woodland on the Swan Coastal Plain 70km north of Perth, Western Australia: (elevation: 51m), and 2km south of the University of Western Australia International Gravity Wave Observatory. The site was established in June 2011 by CSIRO and is now managed by Edith Cowan University Centre for Ecosystem Management. The site is a natural woodland of high species diversity. The overstorey is dominated by Banksia spp. mainly B. menziesii, B. attenuata, and B. grandis with a height of around 7m and leaf area index of about 0.8. There are occasional stands of eucalypts and acacia that reach to 10m and have a denser foliage cover. There are many former wetlands dotted around the woodland, most of which were inundated all winter and some had permanent water 30 years ago. The watertable has now fallen below the base of these systems and they are disconnected and are no longer permanently wet. The fine sediments, sometimes diatomaceous, hold water and they have perched watertables each winter. There is a natural progression of species accompanying this process as they gradually become more dominated by more xeric species. The soils are mainly Podosol sands, with low moisture holding capacity. Field capacity typically about 8 to 10%, and in summer these generally hold less than 2% moisture. The watertable is at about 8.5 m below the surface, and a WA Dept of water long-term monitoring piezometer is near the base of the tower. The instrument mast is 14m tall, with the eddy covariance instruments mounted at 14.8m. Fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapour and heat are quantified with open-path eddy covariance instrumentation. Ancillary measurements include temperature, air humidity, wind speed and direction, precipitation, incoming and outgoing shortwave radiation, incoming and outgoing long wave radiation, incoming total and diffuse PAR and reflected PAR. Soil water content and temperature are measured at six soil depths. Surface soil heat fluxes are also measured. A COSMOS Cosmic ray soil moisture instrument is installed, along with a logged piezometer, and nested piezometers installed with short screens for groundwater profile sampling. To monitor the watertable gradient, piezometers will be installed 500 m esat and west of the tower.
The Loxton flux station was located an Almond Orchard in South Australia's Riverland. Site established in August 2008 and decommissioned in June 2009. The research was supported with funds from the National Action Plan for Salinity via the Centre for Natural Resource Management, and the River Murray Levy.
Ecosystem flux data from the Warra Flux Tower, Tasmania.The flux tower is installed in a stand of tall, mixed-aged E. obliqua forest (77 and >250 years-old) with a rainforest understorey and a dense man-fern (Dicksonia antarctica) ground-layer, on a small flat of elevation 100 m adjacent to the Huon River.The climate of Warra is classified as temperate with a mild summer and no dry season. Mean annual precipitation is 1700 mm with a relatively uniform seasonal distribution. Summer temperatures peak in January (min. 8.4°C – max 19.2°C) with winter temperatures reaching their lowest in July (min 2.6°C – max 8.4°C).Eucalyptus obliqua forests dominate the vegetation below 650 m where they exist as fire-maintained communities. On fertile soils these forests attain mature heights in excess of 55m: the tallest E. obliqua within the LTER reaches a height of 90m. The understorey vegetation progresses from wet sclerophyll (dominated by Pomaderris apatala and Acacia dealbata) to rainforest (dominated by Nothofagus cunninghamii, Atherosperma moschatum, Eucryphia lucida and Phyllocladus aspleniifolius) with increasing time intervals between fire events.The site supports prodigous quantities of coarse woody debris as is characteristic of these fire-maintained eucalypt forests on fertile sites in southern Tasmania. The soil at the flux site is derived from Permian mudstone and has a gradational profile with a dark brown organic clayey silt topsoil overlying a yellow brown clay.The instruments are mounted at the top of an 80m tall guyed steel lattice tower. Supplementary measurements above the canopy include temperature, humidity, windspeed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation. An open-path gas analyser (EC150) was replaced by a closed-path gas analyser (EC155) at the end of Jan 2015.Soil moisture content is measured using Time Domain reflectometry, while soil heat fluxes and temperature are also measured.Micro-meteorology (CO2, H2O, energy fluxes), meteorology (temp, humidity, wind speed and direction, rainfall) taken from the Warra Flux Site from 2013 to late 2016. Data incomplete due to ongoing problems since changing the open-path IRGA to a closed path system (CPEC200) during 2015. Soil data (moisture, heat flux, temp) complete for time period.Data processed to L3 with OzFluxQC version 2.8.4
The Otway flux station was located at Narrinda South in south west Victoria, Australia (GPS coordinates: -38.5323, 142.8168; elevation: 54m).The pasture was grazed by dairy cattle with average grass height of 0.1m.Annual average rainfall at the site was around 800mm and was only moderately seasonal. Mean daily temperature ranged from 25°C in February to 12°C in July.The flux station was situated on a 10m tower. Fluxes of heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide were measured using the open-path eddy covariance technique. Supplementary measurements included temperature, humidity, rainfall, total solar, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and net radiation. Soil temperature and heat flux were also measured.The Otway flux station was established in February 2007 on private land at Nirranda South and managed by CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research staff as part of the Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Gas Technologies.
Flux measurements from the Cow Bay site, Far North Queensland.The Cow Bay flux station was located in the Daintree forest at the Daintree Discovery Centre, Cow Bay, 100km north of Cairns in Far North Queensland. It was established in December 2008 and managed by James Cook University.The forest is classified as complex mesophyll vine forest, there are 94 species in the core 1Ha, and average tree height is 22m. Elevation of the site is 90m and mean annual precipitation is 3935mm. The Daintree Rainforest is one of the most biodiverse forests in Australia.The instruments are mounted on a walk-up tourist tower at 35m. Fluxes of heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide are measured using the open-path eddy flux technique. Supplementary measurements above the canopy include temperature, humidity, windspeed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation.The early years 2009 - 12 had several data gaps. Shadowing of the radiometric equipment continues to cause artifacts on the radiometers - these can be seen as reduction in downwelling radiation with solar inclination. We are currently working on a hardware solution.The site is part of the FNQ Rainforest SuperSite : associated with the Daintree node, which is part of the TERN Australian SuperSite Network (ASN). The site was co-funded by the Daintree Discovery Centre and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network. Past support was from the Department of Environment and Heritage - Marine and Tropical Sciences Research Facility Project 5ii.2. Climate Change: Scaling from trees to ecosystems.
Data from Wallaby Creek flux tower, Victoria.The Wallaby Creek flux station is located in Kinglake National Park, Victoria, South Eastern Australia. The area is assigned the IUCN Category II (National Parks) of the United Nations’ list of National Parks and protected areas, which means that park is primarily managed for ecosystem conservation.The site is approximately 45km north east of Melbourne, lies at an elevation of approximately 720 metres, and is located on the southern edge of the Hume Plateau. The catchment area is dominated by Eucalyptus Regnans or Mountain Ash, the world’s tallest flowering plant (angiosperm). Trees can reach heights of more than 90 metres growing in areas with high rainfall and fertile soil. These trees are well distributed throughout Victoria’s Central Highlands including the Otway Ranges and Strzlecki Ranges; they are also found in Tasmania. The site contains a chronosequence of (20, 80 and 300) stand ages that were established during fires occurring over the last 300 years.The tower itself is located within an old growth stand with individual trees as old as 300 years. Mountain ash forests are confined to the cool mountain regions with elevations ranging from 460 - 1100m and average rainfalls of 1100-2000mm. The forest is classed as a tall, wet sclerophyll forest, and the dominant Mountain Ash trees have an average canopy height of 75m. Below the dominant canopy lies a temperate rainforest understorey consisting of Pomaderris aspera and Olearia argophylla species, which are 10-18 metres tall. The lower layers of vegetation are dominated by tree ferns (Cyathea australis and Dicksonia antartica) and extensive tracts of rosette and rhizonic ferns (Polystichum proliferum and Blechnum wattsii) as well as Acacia trees.The catchment area contains a portion of the Mt Disappointment range, the Divide and the headwaters of Wallaby Creek and Silver Creek, and much of the slopes are characterised as flat to moderate.The major soil type within the forest is krasnozemic soils, which are friable red/brown, with high amounts of organic matter in the upper 20 – 30cm. However, the composition of krasnozemic soils is not homogenous, but rather a variation with altitude can be observed; lower altitudes inhabit grey-yellow podsolised soils compared to higher altitudes of the Kinglake and Hume plateau where the soil composition is krasnozemic loams. The clay content of these soils increases with depth until at least 200 cm deep, where after a transition soils contain rock fragments.The station was established in August 2005 by Monash University, operated in collaboration with Charles Darwin University and University of Alaska Faribanks. The original tower was destroyed in February 2009 by bushfires. Before the bushfire, the main mast stood at 110m. In March 2010, a replacement tower was established and sat at a height of 5m. Data from the site has been recorded from May 2010 onwards. As the tower is relatively new, the post fire instrumentation is currently not as diverse when compared to the pre fire instrumentation.The climate of the study area is classified as a cool, temperate zone, with the highest temperatures occurring during the summer months of December – February (13.8 – 22.5°C), whilst the coolest temperatures are experienced in May and August (4.7 – 9.2°C). Average annual precipitation is 1209mm, with a maximum rainfall occurring in June (Ashton, 2000). The study site experiences foggy conditions after sunset during autumn and winter.
The Litchfield flux station is located in the Litchfield National Park, 80km south of Darwin in the Northern Territory. It was established in 2015 and is managed by The University of Western Australia and Charles Darwin University.The station is located in the Savanna Super Site (SSS) a 5 km x 5 km block of relatively uniform open-forest savanna inside the park about 80 km south of Darwin. The SSS is a research and monitoring site representative of high rainfall, frequently burnt tropical savanna. Tropical savanna in Australia occupies 1.9 million square km across the north and given the extent of this biome, understanding biogeochemical cycles, impacts of fire on sequestration, vegetation and fauna is a national priority.In the NT, savanna ecosystems are largely intact in terms of tree cover, with only modest levels of land use change. Despite this, there is evidence of a loss of biodiversity, most likely due to shifts in fire regimes and a loss of patchiness in the landscape. Approximately 40% of the savanna burn every year and understanding fire impacts on fauna and flora is essential for effective land management.
The Daly River Uncleared flux tower site is located in the Douglas River Daly River Esplanade Conservation area, approximately 60 km south west of Pine Creek, Northern Territory (GPS coordinates: -14.1592, 131.3881).The flux tower site is classified as a Woodland savanna. The overstory is co dominated by tree species E. tetrodonta, C. latifolia, Terminalia grandiflora, Sorghum sp. and Heteropogon triticeus. Average canopy height measures 16.4 m. Elevation of the site is close to 110m and mean annual precipitation at a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site is 1170mm.Maximum temperatures range from 37.5°C (in October) to 31.2°C (in June), while minimum temperatures range from 12.6°C (in July) to 23.8°C (in January). Maximum temperatures range seasonally by 6.3°C and minimum temperatures by 11.2°C.The instrument mast is 23 meters tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements are taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation are measured above the canopy.Ancillary measurements taken at the site include LAI, leaf-scale physiological properties (gas exchange, leaf isotope ratios, N and chlorophyll concentrations), vegetation optical properties and soil physical properties. Airborne based remote sensing (Lidar and hyperspectral measurements) was carried out across the transect in September 2008.
Ecosystem flux data from the Ti Tree East flux station, located on Pine Hill cattle station in the Northern Territory. The site was established in July 2012 and is managed by the University of Technology Sydney.Pine Hill Station is a functioning cattle station that has been in operation for longer than 50 years. However, the east side has not been stocked in over three years. The site is a mosaic of the primary semi-arid biomes of central Australia: grassy mulga woodland and Corymbia/Triodia savanna.The woodland is characterised by a mulga (Acacia aneura) canopy, which is 4.85 m tall on average. The soil is red sand overlying an 8 m deep water table. Elevation of the site is 553 m above sea level, and the terrain is flat.Mean annual precipitation at the nearby (30 km to the south) Bureau of Meteorology station is 305.9 mm but ranges between 100 mm in 2009 to 750 mm in 2010. Predominant wind directions are from the southeast and east.The instrument mast is 10 m tall. Fluxes of heat, water vapour and carbon are measured using the open-path eddy covariance technique at 9.81 m.Supplementary measurements above the canopy include temperature and humidity (9.81 m), windspeed and wind direction (8.28 m), downwelling and upwelling shortwave and longwave radiation (9.9 m).Precipitation is monitored in the savanna (2.5m). Supplementary measurements within and below the canopy include barometric pressure (2 m).Belowground soil measurements are made beneath Triodia, mulga and grassy understorey and include ground heat flux (0.08 m), soil temperature (0.02 m – 0.06 m) and soil moisture (0 – 0.1 m, 0.1 – 0.3 m, 0.6 – 0.8 m and 1.0 – 1.2 m).
The Ridgefield Flux Station is located approximately 12km west of Pingelly, near Perth, Western Australia. It was established in Jan 2015 and is managed by The University of Western Australia.The flux tower is located within an area of dryland agriculture. The surrounding area is dominated by broadacre farming practices. The vegetation cover is predominantly pasture.Elevation of the site is close to 330 m. Climate information comes from the nearby Pingelly BoM AWS station 010626 (1991 to 2016) and shows mean annual precipitation is approximately 445 mm with highest rainfall in June and July of 81 mm each month. Maximumum and minuimum annual rainfall is 775 and 217 mm, respectively. Maximum temperatures range from 31.9°C (in Jan) to 15.4°C (in July), while minimum temperatures range from 5.5°C (in July) to 16.0 °C (in Feb)