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mass concentration of carbon dioxide in air

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    This dataset consists of measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in open forest savanna using eddy covariance techniques.<br /><br /> The site is classified as open forest savanna. The overstory is co-dominated by tree species <em>E. tetrodonta</em>, <em>E. dichromophloia</em>, <em>C. terminalis</em>, <em>Sorghum intrans</em>, <em>S. plumosum</em>, <em>Themeda triandra</em> and <em>Chrysopogon fallax</em>, with canopy height averaging 12.3m. Elevation of the site is close to 175m and mean annual precipitation from a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site measures 895.3mm. Maximum temperatures range from 29.1°C (in June) to 37.6°C (in July), while minimum temperatures range from 14.6°C (in July) to 24.8°C (in November). Maximum temperatures vary seasonally by 8.5°C and minimum by 10.2°C. <br /><br /> The instrument mast is 15 meters tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements are taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation are measured above the canopy. Soil heat fluxes are measured and soil moisture content is gathered using time domain reflectometry. <br /> Ancillary measurements taken at the site include LAI, leaf-scale physiological properties (gas exchange, leaf isotope ratios, N and chlorophyll concentrations), vegetation optical properties and soil physical properties. Airborne based remote sensing (Lidar and hyperspectral measurements) was carried out across the transect in September 2008. <br /><br />This data is also available at http://data.ozflux.org.au .

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    This data release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in semi-arid eucalypt woodland using eddy covariance techniques. It been processed using PyFluxPro (v3.3.0) as described in Isaac et al. (2017), <a href="https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017">https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017</a>. PyFluxPro takes data recorded at the flux tower and process this data to a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER). For more information about the processing levels, see <a href="https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki">https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki</a>. <br /> <br /> <em>Eucalyptus obliqua</em> forests dominate the vegetation below 650 m where they exist as fire-maintained communities. On fertile soils these forests attain mature heights in excess of 55m: the tallest <em>E. obliqua</em>reaches a height of 90m. The flux station is installed in a stand of tall, mixed-aged <em>E. obliqua</em> forest (77 and >250 years-old) with a rainforest understorey and a dense man-fern (<em>Dicksonia antarctica</em>) ground-layer, on a small flat of elevation 100 m adjacent to the Huon River. The understorey vegetation progresses from wet sclerophyll (dominated by <em>Pomaderris apatala</em> and <em>Acacia dealbata</em>) to rainforest (dominated by <em>Nothofagus cunninghamii</em>, <em>Atherosperma moschatum</em>, <em>Eucryphia lucida</em> and <em>Phyllocladus aspleniifolius</em>) with increasing time intervals between fire events. The site supports prodigous quantities of coarse woody debris as is characteristic of these fire-maintained eucalypt forests on fertile sites in southern Tasmania. <br />The soil at the flux site is derived from Permian mudstone and has a gradational profile with a dark brown organic clayey silt topsoil overlying a yellow brown clay. <br />The climate of Warra is classified as temperate with a mild summer and no dry season. Mean annual precipitation is 1700 mm with a relatively uniform seasonal distribution. Summer temperatures peak in January (min. 8.4°C – max 19.2°C) with winter temperatures reaching their lowest in July (min 2.6°C – max 8.4°C).<br /><br />The instruments are mounted at the top of an 80m tall guyed steel lattice tower. Supplementary measurements above the canopy include temperature, humidity, windspeed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation. An open-path gas analyser (EC150) was replaced by a closed-path gas analyser (EC155) at the end of Jan 2015.Soil moisture content is measured using Time Domain Reflectometry, while soil heat fluxes and temperature are also measured. Micro-meteorology (CO<sub>2</sub>, H<sub>2</sub>O, energy fluxes), meteorology (temp, humidity, wind speed and direction, rainfall) taken from the Warra Flux Site from 2013 to late 2016. Data incomplete due to ongoing problems since changing the open-path IRGA to a closed path system (CPEC200) during 2015. Soil data (moisture, heat flux, temp) complete for time period. For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/warra-tall-eucalypt-supersite/ .<br><br>

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.4.7) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br><br> Fletcherview Tropical Rangeland SuperSite was established in 2021 at James Cook University’s Fletcherview Research Station, a fully operational outback cattle station located 50&nbsp;km west of Townsville, Queensland. The site is used for cattle grazing and is characterised by tall open savanna. The vegetation is dominated by native grasses such as blackspear and kangaroo grasses, as well as introduced species like buffel grass, signal grass and leucaena. Fletcherview typically experiences a dry and wet season, with most rainfall occurring between January and April.<br />

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    This dataset consists of measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in open woodland savanna using eddy covariance techniques.<br /><br /> The site is classified as an open woodland savanna. The overstory is co-dominated by tree species <em>Eucalyptus miniata</em> and <em>Eucalyptus tentrodonata</em>, and average tree height is 14–16m. Elevation of the site is close to 64m and mean annual precipitation is 1750mm. Maximum temperatures range from 30.4°C (in July) to 33.2°C (in November), while minimum temperatures range from 19.3°C (in July) to 25.4°C (in November). Therefore, the maximum and minimum range varies from 7°C (wet season) to 11°C (dry season). <br /><br /> The instrument mast is 23m tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements are taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation are measured above the canopy. Soil heat fluxes are measured and soil moisture content is gathered using time domain reflectometry.<br /><br /> This data is also available at http://data.ozflux.org.au .

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    This dataset consists of measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in woodland savanna using eddy covariance techniques.<br /><br /> The site is woodland savanna with an overstory co-dominated by tree species <em>E. tetrodonta</em>, <em>C. latifolia</em>, <em>Terminalia grandiflora</em>, <em>Sorghum sp.</em> and <em>Heteropogon triticeus</em>. Average canopy height measures 16.4 m. <br />Elevation of the site is close to 110m and mean annual precipitation at a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site is 1170mm. Maximum temperatures range from 37.5°C (in October) to 31.2°C (in June), while minimum temperatures range from 12.6°C (in July) to 23.8°C (in January). Maximum temperatures range seasonally by 6.3°C and minimum temperatures by 11.2°C. <br /><br />The instrument mast is 23 meters tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements are taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation are measured above the canopy.<br />Ancillary measurements taken at the site include LAI, leaf-scale physiological properties (gas exchange, leaf isotope ratios, N and chlorophyll concentrations), vegetation optical properties and soil physical properties. Airborne based remote sensing (Lidar and hyperspectral measurements) was carried out across the transect in September 2008. <br /><br />This data is also available at http://data.ozflux.org.au .

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    This dataset consists of measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in semi-arid Mulga woodland, using eddy covariance techniques. <br /> <br /> The Alice Springs Mulga flux station is located on Pine Hill cattle station, near Alice Springs in the Northern Territory. The woodland is characterized by the Acacia aneura canopy, which is 6.5m tall on average. Elevation of the site is 606m above sea level, and the terrain is flat. Mean annual precipitation at the nearby (45km distant) Bureau of Meteorology station is 305.9mm but ranges between 100mm in 2009 to 750mm in 2010. Predominant wind directions are from the southeast and east.The extent of the woodland is 11km to the east of the flux station and 16km to the south. The soil is red sandy clay (50:50 sand:clay) overlying a 49m deep water table. Pine Hill Station is a functioning cattle station that has been in operation for longer than 50 years.The instrument mast is 13.7m tall. Fluxes of heat, water vapour and carbon are measured using the open-path eddy covariance technique at 11.6m. Supplementary measurements above the canopy include temperature and humidity (11.6m), windspeed and wind direction (9.25m), downwelling and upwelling shortwave and longwave radiation (12.2m). Precipitation is monitored in a canopy gap (2.5m). Supplementary measurements within and below the canopy include barometric pressure (1m), wind speed (2m, 4.25m and 6.5m), and temperature and humidity (2m, 4.25m and 6m). Below ground soil measurements are made in bare soil, mulga, and understory habitats and include ground heat flux (0.08m), soil temperature (0.02m – 0.06m) and soil moisture (0 – 0.1m, 0.1 – 0.3m, 0.6 – 0.8m and 1.0 – 1.2m). Ancillary measurements include soil water and carbon fluxes, leaf water potential, leaf gas exchange, stem basal area, stem growth, litter production, leaf area index, stem hydraulic conductance, and carbon and water stable isotope ratios. The site was established in September 2010 in conjunction with the Woodforde River NGCRT Superscience Site and is managed by the University of Technology Sydney. <br />For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/alice-mulga-supersite/ <br /><br /> This data is also available at http://data.ozflux.org.au .

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    This dataset consists of measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in tropical pasture using eddy covariance techniques.<br /> <br /> The site was identified as tropical pasture dominated by species <em>Chamaecrista rotundifolia</em> (Round-leaf cassia cv. Wynn), <em>Digitaria milijiana</em> (Jarra grass) and <em>Aristida sp.</em> standing at approximately 0.3m tall. The soil at the site was a mixture of red kandosol and deep sand. Elevation of the site was close to 70m and mean annual precipitation at a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site was 1250mm. Maximum temperatures ranged from 37.5°C (in October) to 31.2°C (in June), while minimum temperatures ranged from 12.6°C (in July) to 23.8°C (in January). Maximum temperatures varied on a seasonal basis between 6.3°C while minimum temperatures varied by 11.2°C. <br /> <br /> The instrument mast was 15 meters tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements were taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation were measured. <br />Ancillary measurements taken at the site included LAI, leaf-scale physiological properties (gas exchange, leaf isotope ratios, N and chlorophyll concentrations), vegetation optical properties and soil physical properties. Airborne based remote sensing (Lidar and hyperspectral measurements) was carried out across the transect in September 2008. <br /> The site was destroyed by fire in September 2013. <br /><br />This data is also available at http://data.ozflux.org.au .

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    This data release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in semi-arid eucalypt woodland using eddy covariance techniques. It been processed using PyFluxPro (v3.3.0) as described in Isaac et al. (2017), <a href="https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017">https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017</a>. PyFluxPro takes data recorded at the flux tower and process this data to a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER). For more information about the processing levels, see <a href="https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki">https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki</a>. <br /> <br /> Located in a 5 square kilometre block of relatively uniform open-forest savanna, the site is representative of high rainfall, frequently burnt tropical savanna. <br /><br />Tropical savanna in Australia occupies 1.9 million square km across the north and given the extent of this biome, understanding biogeochemical cycles, impacts of fire on sequestration, vegetation and fauna is a national priority. In the NT, savanna ecosystems are largely intact in terms of tree cover, with only modest levels of land use change. Despite this, there is evidence of a loss of biodiversity, most likely due to shifts in fire regimes and a loss of patchiness in the landscape. Approximately 40% of the savanna burn every year and understanding fire impacts on fauna and flora is essential for effective land management. <br /><br />

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    This data release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in semi-arid eucalypt woodland using eddy covariance techniques. It been processed using PyFluxPro (v3.3.3) as described in Isaac et al. (2017), <a href="https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017">https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017</a>. PyFluxPro takes data recorded at the flux tower and process this data to a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER). For more information about the processing levels, see <a href="https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki">https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki</a>. <br /> <br /> The flux station was established in 2017 in Wandoo Woodland, which is surrounded by broadacre farming. About 80% of the overstorey cover is <em>Eucalyptus accedens</em> Climate information comes from the nearby Pingelly BoM AWS station 010626 (1991 to 2016) and shows mean annual precipitation is approximately 445 mm with highest rainfall in June and July of 81 mm each month. Maximumum and minuimum annual rainfall is 775 and 217 mm, respectively. Maximum temperatures range from 31.9°C (in Jan) to 15.4°C (in July), while minimum temperatures range from 5.5°C (in July) to 16.0 °C (in Feb). The Noongar people are the traditional owners at Boyagin. <br />For additional site information, see https://www.tern.org.au/tern-observatory/tern-ecosystem-processes/boyagin-wandoo-woodland-supersite/ . <br /><br />

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    This data release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in semi-arid eucalypt woodland using eddy covariance techniques. It been processed using PyFluxPro (v3.3.0) as described in Isaac et al. (2017), <a href="https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017">https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2903-2017</a>. PyFluxPro takes data recorded at the flux tower and process this data to a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER). For more information about the processing levels, see <a href="https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki">https://github.com/OzFlux/PyFluxPro/wiki</a>. <br /> <br /> The Wombat State Forest site is a secondary re-growth forest that was last harvested in 1980. Dominant tree species are <em>Eucalyptus obliqua</em> (messmate stringybark), <em>Eucalyptus radiata</em> (narrow leaf peppermint) and <em>Eucalyptus rubida</em> (candlebark) with an average canopy height of 25m. The understorey consists mainly of patchy grasses and the soil is a silty-clay overlying clay. The forest is managed by the Department of Sustainability and Environment and management includes selective harvesting and prescribed burning regimes. The climate of the study area is classified as cool-temperate to Mediterranean zone with cold and wet winters (May-Aug) and warm and dry summers (Dec-Feb) with a temperature range: 1-30 °C and mean annual air temperature (2001-2012): 12.1°C. Annual rainfall is approximately 871 mm (142 year long-term average). Coherent automated measurements of soil greenhouse gas fluxes (CO2, CH4 and N2O) were collected using a trailer-mounted mobile laboratory – Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectrometer from 2010 to 2016. Measurement height was 30m but increased to 33m from January 2017<br /><br />