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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Mulligans Flat Nature Reserve. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: the site was originally woodlands on the deeper soils of the lower slopes and flats (<em>Eucalyptus blakelyi</em> and <em>Eucalyptus melliodora</em>) (McIntyre et al. 2010). </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1819: Area managed by indigenous Ngunnawal people</li> <li>1826: Sheep grazing with shepherds commenced</li> <li>1860: Fences constructed - continuous stocking with sheep commenced</li> <li>1920: Fallen timber collected for firewood started</li> <li>1994: Mulligans Flat Nature Reserve established</li> <li>1995: Continuous stocking with sheep grazing ceased</li> <li>1995: Collection of firewood ceased</li> <li>1996: Kangaroo population begins to rapidly increase</li> <li>2006: Predator proof fence completed</li> <li>2008: Commenced annual removal of pest species of plants and animals</li> <li>2010: Commenced annual kangaroo cull.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Goorooyarroo Nature Reserve Site 2, ACT, Australia </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: The site was originally woodlands on the deeper soils of the lower slopes and flats (<em>Eucalyptus blakelyi</em> and <em>Eucalyptus melliodora</em>) (McIntrye et al 2010). </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1819: Area managed by indigenous Ngunnawal people</li> <li>1826: Sheep grazing with shepherds commenced</li> <li>1860: Fences constructed - continuous stocking with sheep commenced</li> <li>1905: Area used for sheep grazing - continuous /set stocking</li> <li>1920: Fallen timber collected for firewood started</li> <li>1961: Mature trees on the site were ring barked to promote pasture grasses</li> <li>1973: Dead and fallen trees felled for fire wood</li> <li>1979: Bushfire burns through the area</li> <li>1994: Mulligans Flat Nature Reserve established</li> <li>1995: Continuous stocking with sheep grazing ceased</li> <li>1995: Collection of firewood ceased</li> <li>1995: Pasture improvement ceased</li> <li>1996: Kangaroo population begins to rapidly increase</li> <li>2006: Roo proof fence completed</li> <li>2006: Commenced annual removal of pest species of plants and animals</li> <li>2010: Commenced annual Kangaroo cull.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Organ Pipes National Park, Volcanic Plains Bioregion, Victoria. </br><br> Pre-European reference-analogue vegetation: Treeless basalt plain predominantly grassland dominated by Kangaroo Grass <em>Themeda triandra</em> with an array of inter-tussock species. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1830: Indigenous people manage the area</li> <li>1835: Sheep grazing commenced (shepherds)</li> <li>1851: Alienated from the Crown as freehold and fenced</li> <li>1851-1965: Area managed for dairying, an orchard and cropping and grazing modified pastures</li> <li>1965: Agricultural production abandoned</li> <li>1965-1986: Area minimally managed</li> <li>1972: Organ Pipes National Park declared</li> <li>1986-1992: Commenced species re-introduced site with supplemental plantings. Area managed to control weed and further incursions</li> <li>1989-2003: Repeated monitoring. Area lightly grazed by rabbits and macropods</li> <li>1993: Site burnt [prescribed fire]; supplemental re-vegetation with indigenous local species </li> <li>1995: Site was burnt [prescribed fire]</li> <li>1997: Site was burnt [prescribed fire] followed by drought</li> <li>2003: Ceased monitoring and enhancement to the site</li> <li>2004-10: Minimal intervention.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Goorooyarroo Nature Reserve Site 3. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: The site was originally woodlands on the deeper soils of the lower slopes and flats (<em>Eucalyptus blakelyi</em> and <em>Eucalyptus melliodora</em>) (McIntyre et al., 2010). </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1819: Area managed by indigenous Ngunnawal people</li> <li>1826: Sheep grazing with shepherds commenced</li> <li>1860: Fences constructed - continuous stocking with sheep commenced in large paddocks</li> <li>1920-1925: Large old and dead trees felled for firewood for Canberra market</li> <li>1961: 50 acre paddock fenced as a future lambing paddock</li> <li>1962-1965: Remaining trees ringbarked, left to stand to dry out and sold as firewood</li> <li>1966-1978: Paddock converted to improved pasture. Repeated resown and fertilized</li> <li>1979-2004: Holding paddock for lambing ewes</li> <li>1994: Mulligans Flat Nature Reserve established</li> <li>2004: Continuous stocking with sheep grazing ceased</li> <li>2005: Kangaroo proof fence erected</li> <li>2008: Kangaroo population begins to rapidly increase</li> <li>2008: Commenced annual removal of pest species of plants and animals</li> <li>2009: Introduced large logs to the site from off the Reserve</li> <li>2010: Commenced annual kangaroo cull.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Talaheni Horse Paddock, Murrambatman, NSW. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: The site was originally a <em>Themeda sp.</em> grassy woodland. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1830: Grazing of native vegetation - shepherds</li> <li>1900-1961: Fencing and continuous grazing with sheep</li> <li>1905: Overstorey thinned by ringbarking</li> <li>1906-1920: Continuous removal of suckers and regrowth</li> <li>1962: Remaining larger trees pushed over with a bull dozer</li> <li>1962-1974: Continuous grazing with cattle</li> <li>1968-1978: Four applications of superphosphate and exotic pasture species</li> <li>1975-1982: Continuous grazing with horses</li> <li>1983-1984: Continuous grazing with sheep</li> <li>1985: Continuous grazing ceased</li> <li>1986: Commenced rehabilitation</li> <li>1987-2008: Area lightly grazed using rotational grazing with sheep</li> <li>2008-2010: All stock removed - increasing high numbers of kangaroos.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Wirilda-Eucalyptus-Allocasuarina open grassy woodland, SA. </br><br> Pre-European reference-analogue vegetation: river red gum (<em>Eucalyptus camaldulensis</em>), blue gum (<em>E. leucoxylon</em>) - drooping sheoak (<em>Allocasuarina verticillata</em>) open woodland. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1750-1849: Meru indigenous people manage the area</li> <li>1838: Explorers traversed the area</li> <li>1850: Pastoralists with shepherds, grazing sheep</li> <li>1883: Land selected, boundary fencing established</li> <li>1883-1900: Continuous grazing with sheep and cattle grazing native vegetation</li> <li>1890: Heavy timber cutting for Callington and Kanmantoo mines, sheep grazing</li> <li>1901-72: Continuous grazing with sheep and cattle grazing modified and native pastures</li> <li>1901-ongoing: Area invaded by invasive pasture species (oats) and weeds</li> <li>1950: Commenced fertilizing pastures using super - applied aerially</li> <li>1972: Area purchased by the Lay family</li> <li>1974: Ceased applications of super fertilizer, ceased grazing, all cattle removed</li> <li>1974-1981: Planted thousands of local endemic seedlings mainly trees and shrubs</li> <li>1974-2012: Monitoring and recording of seedling survival and regeneration</li> <li>1974-1985, 2006-12: Major effort in controlling weeds and feral animals</li> <li>1982: Area gazetted as a Heritage Agreement</li> <li>1992: Massive summer rains (a 1:430 year event) with major erosion along watercourses and regeneration of most species</li> <li>2004: Neighbour starts fire that burns out 25% of area</li> <li>2006: Area gains a 10 year package of funding under the “bushbids” biodiversity stewardship programme</li> <li>2007: <em>Monadenia</em> weed orchid and bridal creeper begin to invade area.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Wirilda-Callitris-Eucalyptus mallee in South Australia, Australia. </br><br> Pre-European reference-analogue vegetation: <em>Callitris</em> (<em>Callitris preissii</em>) - <em>Eucalyptus</em> mallee (<em>E. odorata</em> and <em>E. porosa</em>) low open woodland. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1750-1849: Meru indigenous people manage the area</li> <li>1838: Explorers traversed the area</li> <li>1850: Pastoralists with shepherds, grazing sheep</li> <li>1883: Land selected, boundary fencing established</li> <li>1883-1900: Continuous grazing with sheep and cattle grazing native vegetation</li> <li>1890: Heavy timber cutting for Callington and Kanmantoo mines, sheep grazing</li> <li>1900: Area ploughed and sown to black oats</li> <li>1901-72: Continuous grazing with sheep and cattle grazing modified and native pastures</li> <li>1950: Commenced fertilising pastures using super - applied aerially several times in the 1960’s</li> <li>1972: Ceased applications of super fertilizer, ceased grazing all cattle removed</li> <li>1974: Area purchased by the Lay family</li> <li>1974-1981: Planted about 25,000 tubestock using local endemic species, mainly trees and shrubs</li> <li>1974-2012: Monitoring and recording of seedling survival and regeneration</li> <li>1974-1985, 2006-12: Major effort in controlling weeds and feral animals</li> <li>1982: Area gazetted as a Heritage Agreement</li> <li>1983-2003: All further revegetation efforts by direct seeding techniques such as “niche seeding”</li> <li>1992: Massive summer rains (a 1:430 year event) with major erosion along watercourses and regeneration of most species</li> <li>2004: Neighbour starts fire, which burns out 25% of area</li> <li>2006: Area gains a 10 year package of funding under the “bushbids” biodiversity stewardship programme</li> <li>2007: <em>Monadenia</em> weed orchid and bridal creeper begin to invade area.</li></ul></br>