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PRECIPITATION AMOUNT

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    The Australian cosmic-ray soil moisture monitoring network was first established in 2010 to provide Australian and global researchers with spatially distributed intermediate scale soil moisture observations. A cosmic-ray sensor (CRS) provides continuous estimates of soil moisture over an area of approximately 30 hectares by measuring naturally generated fast neutrons (energy 10–1000 eV) that are produced by cosmic rays passing through the Earth’s atmosphere. The neutron intensity above the land surface is inversely correlated with soil moisture as it responds to the hydrogen contained in the soil and to a lesser degree to plant and soil carbon compounds. The cosmic-ray technique is also passive, non-contact, and is largely insensitive to bulk density, surface roughness, the physical state of water, and soil texture. The scale of CRS measurements fills the void between point scale sensor measurements and large scale satellite observations. The depth of measurements varies with the moisture content of the soil but is typically between 10-30 cm. The depth of observations is reported as ‘effective depth’. <br> The CosmOz network is expanding as new sensors are added over time. The initial network was funded by CSIRO Land and Water but more recently TERN has funded work to maintain the network add new sensors and deliver data more efficiently. The standard CRS installation includes; a cosmic-ray neutron tube, a rain gauge (2m high), temperature and humidity sensors, and an atmospheric pressure sensor. Measures of all parameters are reported at an hourly interval. Each CRS requires an in-field calibration across the footprint of measurements to convert neutron counts to soil moisture content. The calibration includes collection of soil samples for bulk density, lattice water content and soil organic carbon.<br> The Australia CosmOz network consists of <a href="https://cosmoz.csiro.au/sites">19 stations</a>. The extent of the network and available data can be seen at the CosmOz network web page: <a href="https://cosmoz.csiro.au/">https://cosmoz.csiro.au</a>. The data is also accessible from the <a href="https://landscapes-cosmoz-api.tern.org.au/rest/doc">TERN Cosmoz REST API</a>.<br> The calibration and correction procedures used by the network are described by <a href="https://doi.org/10.1002/2013WR015138">Hawdon et al. 2014 </a>.

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.4.17) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br><br> The Yarramundi Irrigated site is an improved, managed pasture on the Western Sydney University Hawkesbury campus. Original woodland vegetation was cleared prior to 1950. A mixture of native and exotic grasses and forbs dominate the site, which is used by cattle in an intensively managed grazing operation. The flux tower was established in October of 2019 and is managed by the Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment, with partial support from TERN and WSU Office of Estate and Commercial (Farm Production Unit).</br> <br>The climate is warm-temperate, with annual rainfall averaging 728&nbsp;mm, mean maximum temperature in January of 30.4&deg;C and mean minimum temperature in July of 3.6&deg;C (BOM station 067105). The elevation of the site is about 20&nbsp;m asl and the topography is flat. The soil is sandy loam in texture, organic carbon content is <1%.</br>

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.4.15) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br> <br>The Cape Tribulation flux station was located in the land that is adjacent to the Daintree National Park which is part of the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area (WTWHA). The site is flanked to the west by coastal ranges rising to more than 1400&nbsp;m and to the east by the Coral Sea. The red clay loam podzolic soils are of metamorphic origin and have good drainage characteristics. The metamorphic rocks grade into granite boulders along Thompson Creek which runs along the northern boundary of the site. The crane site itself is gently sloping but the fetch area makes the site one of very complex terrain. The forest is classed as complex mesophyll vine forest (type 1a) and has an average canopy height of 25m. The dominant canopy trees belong to the <i>Apocynaceae</i>, <i>Arecaceae</i>, <i>Euphorbiaceae</i>, <i>Lauraceae</i>, <i>Meliaceae</i>, <i>Myristicaceae</i> and <i>Myrtaceae</i> families. The forest is continuous for several kilometres around the crane except for an area 300&nbsp;m due east of the crane, which is regrowth forest. Annual average rainfall at the site is around 5180&nbsp;mm and is strongly seasonal, with 66% falling between January and April (wet season). Mean daily temperature ranges from 26.6&nbsp;°C in February to 21.2&nbsp;°C in July. </br> <br> Tropical cyclones are a frequent occurrence in Far North Queensland. These severe tropical storm systems are natural phenomena which play a major role in determining the ecology of Queensland's tropical lowland rainforests. In March 1999 Tropical Cyclone Rona (Category 3) passed over the Cape Tribulation area causing widespread damage (gusts >170&nbsp;km/h). At the site several large trees fell, nearly all of the remaining trees were stripped of leaves and the lianas towers were torn to ground level. </br> <br> The flux station was mounted at the 45&nbsp;m level on the tower of the Australian Canopy Crane external link. The canopy crane is a Liebherr 91 EC, freestanding construction tower crane. The crane is 48.5&nbsp;m tall with a radius of 55&nbsp;m enabling access to 1 hectare of rainforest. Fluxes of heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide were measured using the open-path eddy covariance technique. Supplementary measurements above the canopy included temperature, humidity, rainfall, total solar; these measurements have continued post the flux system decommissioning. Heat flux, soil temperature and water content (time domain reflectometry) were measured in proximity to the flux station; these measurements have continued post the flux system decommissioning. Detailed biometric measurements are made at the crane site and all trees have regular (5 yearly) dbh measurements and canopy mapping carried out. Monitoring bores (3) are located on site. Leaf litter measurements are carried out on a monthly basis.

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.5.0) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br> <br>Ti Tree East site was established in July 2012 and is managed by the University of Technology Sydney. Pine Hill Station is a functioning cattle station that has been in operation for longer than 50 years. However, the east side has not been stocked in over three years. The site is a mosaic of the primary semi-arid biomes of central Australia: grassy mulga woodland and <em>Corymbia/Triodia</em> savanna.The woodland is characterised by a mulga (<em>Acacia aneura</em>) canopy, which is 4.85&nbsp;m tall on average. The soil is red sand overlying an 8&nbsp;m deep water table. Elevation of the site is 553&nbsp;m above sea level, and the terrain is flat. Mean annual precipitation at the nearby (30&nbsp;km to the south) Bureau of Meteorology station is 305.9&nbsp;mm but ranges between 100&nbsp;mm in 2009 to 750&nbsp;mm in 2010. Predominant wind directions are from the southeast and east.</br> <br>The instrument mast is 10&nbsp;m tall. Fluxes of heat, water vapour and carbon are measured using the open-path eddy covariance technique at 9.81&nbsp;m. Supplementary measurements above the canopy include temperature and humidity (9.81&nbsp;m), windspeed and wind direction (8.28&nbsp;m), downwelling and upwelling shortwave and longwave radiation (9.9&nbsp;m). Precipitation is monitored in the savanna (2.5&nbsp;m). Supplementary measurements within and below the canopy include barometric pressure (2&nbsp;m). Below ground soil measurements are made beneath Triodia, mulga and grassy understorey and include ground heat flux (0.08&nbsp;m), soil temperature (0.02&nbsp;m - 0.06&nbsp;m) and soil moisture (0 - 0.1&nbsp;m, 0.1 - 0.3&nbsp;m, 0.6 - 0.8&nbsp;m and 1.0 - 1.2&nbsp;m).</br>

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.5.0) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br><br> The Loxton site was established in August 2008 and decommissioned in June 2009. The orchard was divided into 10&nbsp;ha blocks (200&nbsp;m by 500&nbsp;m with the long axis aligned north–south) and the flux tower was situated at 34.47035&nbsp;°S and 140.65512&nbsp;°E near the middle of the northern half of a block of trees. The topography of the site was slightly undulating and the area around the tower had a slope of less than 1.5&nbsp;°. The orchard was planted in 2000 with an inter-row spacing of 7&nbsp;m and a within row spacing of 5&nbsp;m. Tree height in August 2008 was 5.5&nbsp;m. The study block consists of producers, Nonpareil, planted every other row, and pollinators planted as alternating rows of Carmel, Carmel and Peerless, and Carmel and Price. All varieties were planted on Nemaguard rootstock. All but 31&nbsp;ha of the surrounding orchard was planted between 1999 and 2002. Nutrients were applied via fertigation. Dosing occurred between September and November and in April with KNO<sub>3</sub>, Urea, KCl, and NH<sub>4</sub>NO<sub>3</sub> applied at annual rates of 551, 484, 647, and 113&nbsp;kg/ha, respectively. The growth of ground cover along the tree line was suppressed with herbicides throughout the year. Growth in the mid-row began in late winter and persisted until herbicide application in late November. The research was supported with funds from the National Action Plan for Salinity via the Centre for Natural Resource Management, and the River Murray Levy.

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.4.17) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br> <br>The site is located on a low lying plain dominated by Mitchell Grass (<em>Astrebla</em> spp.). Elevation of the site is close to 250&nbsp;m and mean annual precipitation at a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site is 640&nbsp;mm. Maximum temperatures range from 28.4&nbsp;°C (in June/ July) to 39.1&nbsp;°C (in December), while minimum temperatures range from 11.2&nbsp;°C (in July) to 24.4&nbsp;°C (in December).</br> <br>The instrument mast is 5&nbsp;m tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements are taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall and net radiation are measured. Soil heat fluxes are measured and soil moisture content is gathered using time domain reflectometry.</br> <br>Ancillary measurements taken at the site include LAI, leaf-scale physiological properties (gas exchange, leaf isotope ratios, nitrogen and chlorophyll concentrations), vegetation optical properties and soil physical properties. Airborne based remote sensing (Lidar and hyperspectral measurements) was carried out at the site in September 2008. Biomass harvest measured: mean live biomass 0.00&nbsp;gm<sup>-2</sup> (standard error: 0.00), mean standing dead biomass 163.42&nbsp;gm<sup>-2</sup> (standard error: 16.73), mean litter biomass 148.99&nbsp;gm<sup>-2</sup> (standard error: 21.32), total mean biomass 312.40&nbsp;gm<sup>-2</sup> (standard error: 30.80). Soil consists of: clay 14.47%, silt 51.23%, sand 34.30%.</br>

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.4.17) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br><br> The site is situated within a wetland that flooded seasonally. The principal vegetation is <em>Oryza rufipogon</em>, <em>Pseudoraphis spinescens</em> and <em>Eleocharis dulcis</em>. The elevation is approximately 4&nbsp;m, with a neighbouring Bureau of Meteorology station recording 1411&nbsp;mm mean annual precipitation. Maximum temperatures range from 31.3&nbsp;°C (in June and July) to 35.6&nbsp;°C (in October), while minimum temperatures range from 14.9&nbsp;°C (in July) to 23.9&nbsp;°C (in December and February). Maximum temperatures vary on a seasonal basis by approximately 4.3&nbsp;°C and minimum temperatures by 9.0&nbsp;°C.<br /><br /> The instrument mast is 15&nbsp;m tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements are taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation are measured above the canopy. Soil heat fluxes are measured and soil moisture content is gathered using time domain reflectometry. Ancillary measurements being taken at the site include LAI, leaf-scale physiological properties (gas exchange, leaf isotope ratios, nitrogen and chlorophyll concentrations), vegetation optical properties and soil physical properties. Airborne-based remote sensing (Lidar and hyperspectral measurements) was carried out across the site in September 2008.

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.4.7) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br> <br> The Calperum Chowilla site was established in July 2010 and is managed by the University of Adelaide, coordinated by Prof Wayne Meyer and Prof David Chittleborough of the Landscape Futures Program as part of the Environment Institute. This is a former sheep grazing property that has been destocked and is being managed as a conservation area in this type of ecosystem. The landscape is flat with a series of low east–west sand dunes. The dunes are remnants of a previous dry era and are mostly now stabilized by mallee (multi-stemmed Eucalypt trees) and various shrubs. It is a semi-arid environment fringing the River Murray floodplains of the Riverland. <br>

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    <br>This release consists of flux tower measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer using eddy covariance techniques. Data were processed using PyFluxPro (v3.4.17) as described by Isaac et al. (2017). PyFluxPro produces a final, gap-filled product with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) partitioned into Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Ecosystem Respiration (ER).</br> <br>Ti Tree East site was established in July 2012 and is managed by the University of Technology Sydney. Pine Hill Station is a functioning cattle station that has been in operation for longer than 50 years. However, the east side has not been stocked in over three years. The site is a mosaic of the primary semi-arid biomes of central Australia: grassy mulga woodland and <em>Corymbia/Triodia</em> savanna.The woodland is characterised by a mulga (<em>Acacia aneura</em>) canopy, which is 4.85&nbsp;m tall on average. The soil is red sand overlying an 8&nbsp;m deep water table. Elevation of the site is 553&nbsp;m above sea level, and the terrain is flat. Mean annual precipitation at the nearby (30&nbsp;km to the south) Bureau of Meteorology station is 305.9&nbsp;mm but ranges between 100&nbsp;mm in 2009 to 750&nbsp;mm in 2010. Predominant wind directions are from the southeast and east.</br> <br>The instrument mast is 10&nbsp;m tall. Fluxes of heat, water vapour and carbon are measured using the open-path eddy covariance technique at 9.81&nbsp;m. Supplementary measurements above the canopy include temperature and humidity (9.81&nbsp;m), windspeed and wind direction (8.28&nbsp;m), downwelling and upwelling shortwave and longwave radiation (9.9&nbsp;m). Precipitation is monitored in the savanna (2.5&nbsp;m). Supplementary measurements within and below the canopy include barometric pressure (2&nbsp;m). Below ground soil measurements are made beneath Triodia, mulga and grassy understorey and include ground heat flux (0.08&nbsp;m), soil temperature (0.02&nbsp;m - 0.06&nbsp;m) and soil moisture (0 - 0.1&nbsp;m, 0.1 - 0.3&nbsp;m, 0.6 - 0.8&nbsp;m and 1.0 - 1.2&nbsp;m).</br>

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    This dataset consists of measurements of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer in open forest savanna using eddy covariance techniques.<br /><br /> The site is classified as open forest savanna. The overstory is co-dominated by tree species <em>E. tetrodonta</em>, <em>E. dichromophloia</em>, <em>C. terminalis</em>, <em>Sorghum intrans</em>, <em>S. plumosum</em>, <em>Themeda triandra</em> and <em>Chrysopogon fallax</em>, with canopy height averaging 12.3m. Elevation of the site is close to 175m and mean annual precipitation from a nearby Bureau of Meteorology site measures 895.3mm. Maximum temperatures range from 29.1°C (in June) to 37.6°C (in July), while minimum temperatures range from 14.6°C (in July) to 24.8°C (in November). Maximum temperatures vary seasonally by 8.5°C and minimum by 10.2°C. <br /><br /> The instrument mast is 15 meters tall. Heat, water vapour and carbon dioxide measurements are taken using the open-path eddy flux technique. Temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, incoming and reflected shortwave radiation and net radiation are measured above the canopy. Soil heat fluxes are measured and soil moisture content is gathered using time domain reflectometry. <br /> Ancillary measurements taken at the site include LAI, leaf-scale physiological properties (gas exchange, leaf isotope ratios, N and chlorophyll concentrations), vegetation optical properties and soil physical properties. Airborne based remote sensing (Lidar and hyperspectral measurements) was carried out across the transect in September 2008. <br /><br />This data is also available at http://data.ozflux.org.au .