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    The project brought together a group of Australian researchers and managers with a broad range of expertise to identify current and emerging economies (‘drivers’) affecting regional agricultural landscapes and to suggest beneficial transformational changes for successful adaptation. A key challenge in these landscapes is altering how we use the land for ongoing, viable production while increasing native biodiversity. The group:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>identified the major historical influences on Australian land use and the current social and economic drivers that are likely to increase in the future</li> <li>assessed the condition of five agro-climatic regions (adapted from Williams et al., 2002 and Hobbs and McIntyre, 2005) using a Delphi method. A small (4-person) expert panel scored the impact of historical and future scenarios on ten sustainability indicators (biodiversity, water, soil, social capital, built capital, food/fibre, carbon, energy, minerals and cultural). Five regions were chosen: Southern Mediterranean, Northern tropical, Central arid, North-east subtropical, and South-east temperate. This was an iterative process whereby scores were revisited until internal consistency between regions, scenarios, and indicators was achieved</li> <li>made projections of regional condition under the four global Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) based on van Vuuren et al. (2011)</li> <li>developed recommendations about land use and management, institutional and policy arrangements and social processes that will assist adaptation towards a values-rich vision of Australia in 2100.</li></ul>

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    <br>Hermitage Research Station (28&deg; 12’ S, 152&deg; 06’ E) situated near Warwick, is the site of a 33 year study of carbon cycling, storage and emissions in a southern Queensland winter cereal system. Mean annual temperature at the site is 17.5&deg;C and mean annual rainfall is 685&nbsp;mm. The soil is a Vertosol containing 65% clay, 24% silt, and 11% sand. Treatments at the trial included stubble burnt (SB), stubble retained (SR), conventional tillage (CT), no tillage (NT), nitrogen fertiliser added (NF) and no nitrogen fertiliser added (N0). It has provided guidance to farmers on optimising nitrogen use efficiency through fine tuning rates to meet crop need, e.g. delivering nitrogen when it is needed by the crop possibly using split applications and coated fertilisers with slower nutrient release profiles. Sourcing nitrogen from pulse crop and pasture was also studied as an option for meeting nitrogen needs with lower emissions and reduced cost.</br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Organ Pipes National Park, Volcanic Plains Bioregion, Victoria. </br><br> Pre-European reference-analogue vegetation: Treeless basalt plain predominantly grassland dominated by Kangaroo Grass <em>Themeda triandra</em> with an array of inter-tussock species. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1830: Indigenous people manage the area</li> <li>1835: Sheep grazing commenced (shepherds)</li> <li>1851: Alienated from the Crown as freehold and fenced</li> <li>1851-1965: Area managed for dairying, an orchard and cropping and grazing modified pastures</li> <li>1965: Agricultural production abandoned</li> <li>1965-1986: Area minimally managed</li> <li>1972: Organ Pipes National Park declared</li> <li>1986-1992: Commenced species re-introduced site with supplemental plantings. Area managed to control weed and further incursions</li> <li>1989-2003: Repeated monitoring. Area lightly grazed by rabbits and macropods</li> <li>1993: Site burnt [prescribed fire]; supplemental re-vegetation with indigenous local species </li> <li>1995: Site was burnt [prescribed fire]</li> <li>1997: Site was burnt [prescribed fire] followed by drought</li> <li>2003: Ceased monitoring and enhancement to the site</li> <li>2004-10: Minimal intervention.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Belconnen Naval Transmitter Station in ACT, Australia. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: the original vegetation for the site Belconnen Naval Transmitter Station was a temperate grassland in an ecological community dominated by native species of perennial tussock grasses. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>Up to late 1820s the area was managed by indigenous Ngunnawal people</li> <li>1830s: Area first grazed by sheep and cattle with the aid of shepherds</li> <li>1860: Fences were established and continuous stocking commenced</li> <li>1900: Patches of woodland areas on higher ground were partly cleared</li> <li>1900-39: High likelihood of moderate to heavy grazing pressure due to sheep and cattle</li> <li>1940-1993: Area managed as a naval transmission station</li> <li>1940-92: Area managed for sheep grazing under continuous grazing</li> <li>1970: Secure people and kangaroo proof fence established</li> <li>1993: Sheep removed from the site</li> <li>1995: mowers used to manage the grass</li> <li>1997-2008: Kangaroo population increased to unacceptable levels</li> <li>2006: Naval transmission towers demolished, area continued to have a secure people proof fence</li> <li>2008: Kangaroo population culled to reduce grazing pressure</li> <li>2011: Site managed for nature conservation values.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Mulligans Flat Nature Reserve. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: the site was originally woodlands on the deeper soils of the lower slopes and flats (<em>Eucalyptus blakelyi</em> and <em>Eucalyptus melliodora</em>) (McIntyre et al. 2010). </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1819: Area managed by indigenous Ngunnawal people</li> <li>1826: Sheep grazing with shepherds commenced</li> <li>1860: Fences constructed - continuous stocking with sheep commenced</li> <li>1920: Fallen timber collected for firewood started</li> <li>1994: Mulligans Flat Nature Reserve established</li> <li>1995: Continuous stocking with sheep grazing ceased</li> <li>1995: Collection of firewood ceased</li> <li>1996: Kangaroo population begins to rapidly increase</li> <li>2006: Predator proof fence completed</li> <li>2008: Commenced annual removal of pest species of plants and animals</li> <li>2010: Commenced annual kangaroo cull.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Goorooyarroo Nature Reserve Site 2, ACT, Australia </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: The site was originally woodlands on the deeper soils of the lower slopes and flats (<em>Eucalyptus blakelyi</em> and <em>Eucalyptus melliodora</em>) (McIntrye et al 2010). </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1819: Area managed by indigenous Ngunnawal people</li> <li>1826: Sheep grazing with shepherds commenced</li> <li>1860: Fences constructed - continuous stocking with sheep commenced</li> <li>1905: Area used for sheep grazing - continuous /set stocking</li> <li>1920: Fallen timber collected for firewood started</li> <li>1961: Mature trees on the site were ring barked to promote pasture grasses</li> <li>1973: Dead and fallen trees felled for fire wood</li> <li>1979: Bushfire burns through the area</li> <li>1994: Mulligans Flat Nature Reserve established</li> <li>1995: Continuous stocking with sheep grazing ceased</li> <li>1995: Collection of firewood ceased</li> <li>1995: Pasture improvement ceased</li> <li>1996: Kangaroo population begins to rapidly increase</li> <li>2006: Roo proof fence completed</li> <li>2006: Commenced annual removal of pest species of plants and animals</li> <li>2010: Commenced annual Kangaroo cull.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details for the Big Scrub Rocky Creek Dam, NSW. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark - analogue vegetation: The site was originally Lowland Subtropical Rainforest on basalt-derived and alluvial soils. The forest is distinguished by its dense, uneven canopy comprised of typically two to three tall tree layers. Eucalypts and brushbox (<em>Lophostemon confertus</em>) may be present as sparse emergent. Characteristic life-forms include buttressed trees, strangler figs, stands of bangalow palms (<em>Archontophoenix cunninghamiana</em>), woody vines and large epiphytes. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1840: Intact rainforest</li> <li>1862: Area opened-up for selection</li> <li>1900: Cedar getters select large trees</li> <li>1910: Rainforest cleared and converted to pasture for dairying</li> <li>1911-1948: Area used for grazing dairy cattle</li> <li>1948: Area acquired for public use (water storage)</li> <li>1950-1989: Minimal management - land in transition (open public space)</li> <li>1950-1952: Rocky Creek Dam constructed</li> <li>1983-1990: Commenced experiments using assisted regeneration on small test plots</li> <li>1991-2000: Large scale assisted regeneration (25&nbsp;ha) by converting lantana thickets to rainforest</li> <li>2001-2011: Minimal management.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about the Taroom Shire site in Queensland, Australia. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: the site was originally a brigalow, <em>Acacia harpophylla</em>, mixed community associated with several overstorey species, including <em>Eucalyptus coolabah</em>, <em>E. cambageana</em>, <em>Casuarina cristata</em>, a range of understorey species, grassy woodlands and open forests. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1860: Area used for sheep grazing by shepherds</li> <li>1870: Permanent fences established</li> <li>1875: Start of continuous or set stocking with sheep</li> <li>1880: Incursion of prickly pear started</li> <li>1935: Prickly pear had been destroyed</li> <li>1929-1932: Land clearance through ringbarking</li> <li>1929-1932: Gradual increase in cattle numbers decline in sheep</li> <li>1940-1955: Manual clearing of brigalow with axes issues with regrowth</li> <li>1960-62: Brigalow pulled mechanically and soil ploughed</li> <li>1962: Soil ploughed and sown to buffel grass pasture</li> <li>1962-65: Continuous grazing with cattle on buffel grass pasture</li> <li>1966-75: Soil ploughed and sown to wheat annually – cattle graze stubble</li> <li>1976: Soil ploughed and sown to buffel grass pasture</li> <li>1976-2000: Continuous grazing with cattle on buffel grass pasture</li> <li>2001-10: Soil ploughed and sown to wheat annually – cattle graze stubble.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Talaheni Horse Paddock, Murrambatman, NSW. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: The site was originally a <em>Themeda sp.</em> grassy woodland. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1830: Grazing of native vegetation - shepherds</li> <li>1900-1961: Fencing and continuous grazing with sheep</li> <li>1905: Overstorey thinned by ringbarking</li> <li>1906-1920: Continuous removal of suckers and regrowth</li> <li>1962: Remaining larger trees pushed over with a bull dozer</li> <li>1962-1974: Continuous grazing with cattle</li> <li>1968-1978: Four applications of superphosphate and exotic pasture species</li> <li>1975-1982: Continuous grazing with horses</li> <li>1983-1984: Continuous grazing with sheep</li> <li>1985: Continuous grazing ceased</li> <li>1986: Commenced rehabilitation</li> <li>1987-2008: Area lightly grazed using rotational grazing with sheep</li> <li>2008-2010: All stock removed - increasing high numbers of kangaroos.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Goorooyarroo Nature Reserve Site 3. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: The site was originally woodlands on the deeper soils of the lower slopes and flats (<em>Eucalyptus blakelyi</em> and <em>Eucalyptus melliodora</em>) (McIntyre et al., 2010). </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1819: Area managed by indigenous Ngunnawal people</li> <li>1826: Sheep grazing with shepherds commenced</li> <li>1860: Fences constructed - continuous stocking with sheep commenced in large paddocks</li> <li>1920-1925: Large old and dead trees felled for firewood for Canberra market</li> <li>1961: 50 acre paddock fenced as a future lambing paddock</li> <li>1962-1965: Remaining trees ringbarked, left to stand to dry out and sold as firewood</li> <li>1966-1978: Paddock converted to improved pasture. Repeated resown and fertilized</li> <li>1979-2004: Holding paddock for lambing ewes</li> <li>1994: Mulligans Flat Nature Reserve established</li> <li>2004: Continuous stocking with sheep grazing ceased</li> <li>2005: Kangaroo proof fence erected</li> <li>2008: Kangaroo population begins to rapidly increase</li> <li>2008: Commenced annual removal of pest species of plants and animals</li> <li>2009: Introduced large logs to the site from off the Reserve</li> <li>2010: Commenced annual kangaroo cull.</li></ul></br>