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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Goorooyarroo Nature Reserve Site 2, ACT, Australia </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: The site was originally woodlands on the deeper soils of the lower slopes and flats (<em>Eucalyptus blakelyi</em> and <em>Eucalyptus melliodora</em>) (McIntrye et al 2010). </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1819: Area managed by indigenous Ngunnawal people</li> <li>1826: Sheep grazing with shepherds commenced</li> <li>1860: Fences constructed - continuous stocking with sheep commenced</li> <li>1905: Area used for sheep grazing - continuous /set stocking</li> <li>1920: Fallen timber collected for firewood started</li> <li>1961: Mature trees on the site were ring barked to promote pasture grasses</li> <li>1973: Dead and fallen trees felled for fire wood</li> <li>1979: Bushfire burns through the area</li> <li>1994: Mulligans Flat Nature Reserve established</li> <li>1995: Continuous stocking with sheep grazing ceased</li> <li>1995: Collection of firewood ceased</li> <li>1995: Pasture improvement ceased</li> <li>1996: Kangaroo population begins to rapidly increase</li> <li>2006: Roo proof fence completed</li> <li>2006: Commenced annual removal of pest species of plants and animals</li> <li>2010: Commenced annual Kangaroo cull.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Blundells Flat, ex-coupe 427A, ACT. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: the site vegetation was originally brown barrel (<em>Eucalyptus fastigata</em>), growing in association with ribbon gum (<em>E. viminalis</em>). </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1788: Unmodified and intact tall open eucalypt forest; forest unaffected</li> <li>1860: Area burnt by severe wildfire</li> <li>1915: Water catchment area declared for Canberra –forest unaffected</li> <li>1939: Area burnt by severe wildfire</li> <li>1915-1954: Area managed as water catchment area – frequent forest fires to control fuel loads</li> <li>1955: Commenced selective logging of mainly brown barrel (<em>E. fastigata</em>)</li> <li>1956: Clear-felled remaining wet sclerophyll forest and pushed timber into windrows with a bulldozer</li> <li>1958: Felled timber burnt in February</li> <li>1958: 1<sup>st</sup> rotation radiata (Monterey) pine (<em>P. radiata</em>) planted by hand</li> <li>1960: Controlled competing regrowth native vegetation, manually with axes, slashers, or hoes</li> <li>1986: 1<sup>st</sup> rotation trees logged and crawler tractor used to snig timber off site</li> <li>1987: Slash left on the ground to decompose - no ripping - too steep</li> <li>1988: Roundup sprayed to kill regrowth. 2<sup>nd</sup> rotation <em>P. radiata</em> planted. NPK fertiliser spread around every seedling by hand</li> <li>1990: Site hand cut the regrowth using brush hooks e.g. eucalypts, acacia and 1<sup>st</sup> rotation pine seedlings</li> <li>1999: 2<sup>nd</sup> rotation pines thinned and pruned. Thinnings were left on the ground to decay</li> <li>2003: Area burnt by severe wildfire killed all pines</li> <li>2003: Sterile rye corn grass seed was sown across the coupe using light aircraft to stabilise erodible soils</li> <li>2003: Killed pines and native regrowth pushed over and windrowed with a bulldozer</li> <li>2004: Site declared minimal use - rehabilitation</li> <li>2005: Contractors were engaged to manually remove pine seedlings - pines were defined as a weed. Other weeds not controlled</li> <li>2005-2012: Site left to rehabilitate.</li></ul></br>