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    The project brought together a group of Australian researchers and managers with a broad range of expertise to identify current and emerging economies (‘drivers’) affecting regional agricultural landscapes and to suggest beneficial transformational changes for successful adaptation. A key challenge in these landscapes is altering how we use the land for ongoing, viable production while increasing native biodiversity. The group:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>identified the major historical influences on Australian land use and the current social and economic drivers that are likely to increase in the future</li> <li>assessed the condition of five agro-climatic regions (adapted from Williams et al., 2002 and Hobbs and McIntyre, 2005) using a Delphi method. A small (4-person) expert panel scored the impact of historical and future scenarios on ten sustainability indicators (biodiversity, water, soil, social capital, built capital, food/fibre, carbon, energy, minerals and cultural). Five regions were chosen: Southern Mediterranean, Northern tropical, Central arid, North-east subtropical, and South-east temperate. This was an iterative process whereby scores were revisited until internal consistency between regions, scenarios, and indicators was achieved</li> <li>made projections of regional condition under the four global Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) based on van Vuuren et al. (2011)</li> <li>developed recommendations about land use and management, institutional and policy arrangements and social processes that will assist adaptation towards a values-rich vision of Australia in 2100.</li></ul>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Goorooyarroo Nature Reserve Site 3. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: The site was originally woodlands on the deeper soils of the lower slopes and flats (<em>Eucalyptus blakelyi</em> and <em>Eucalyptus melliodora</em>) (McIntyre et al., 2010). </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1819: Area managed by indigenous Ngunnawal people</li> <li>1826: Sheep grazing with shepherds commenced</li> <li>1860: Fences constructed - continuous stocking with sheep commenced in large paddocks</li> <li>1920-1925: Large old and dead trees felled for firewood for Canberra market</li> <li>1961: 50 acre paddock fenced as a future lambing paddock</li> <li>1962-1965: Remaining trees ringbarked, left to stand to dry out and sold as firewood</li> <li>1966-1978: Paddock converted to improved pasture. Repeated resown and fertilized</li> <li>1979-2004: Holding paddock for lambing ewes</li> <li>1994: Mulligans Flat Nature Reserve established</li> <li>2004: Continuous stocking with sheep grazing ceased</li> <li>2005: Kangaroo proof fence erected</li> <li>2008: Kangaroo population begins to rapidly increase</li> <li>2008: Commenced annual removal of pest species of plants and animals</li> <li>2009: Introduced large logs to the site from off the Reserve</li> <li>2010: Commenced annual kangaroo cull.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about the Taroom Shire Potters Flat. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: The site was originally brigalow <em>Acacia harpophylla</em>, mixed community associated with overstorey several species, including <em>Eucalyptus coolabah</em>, <em>E. cambageana</em>, <em>Casuarina cristata</em>, and a range of understorey species, grassy woodlands and open forests. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1860: Area used for sheep grazing by shepherds</li> <li>1870: Permanent fences established</li> <li>1875: Start of continuous or set stocking with sheep</li> <li>1880: Incursion of prickly pear started</li> <li>1904-1929: Continuous grazing with sheep</li> <li>1929-1932: Gradual increase in cattle numbers, decline in sheep</li> <li>1930-1935: Land clearance via ringbarking</li> <li>1932-1970: Almost continuous grazing with cattle - relatively low stock numbers</li> <li>1935: Prickly pear had been destroyed</li> <li>1940-1955: Re-clearing brigalow regrowth with axes and fallen timber burnt</li> <li>1956-1960: Brigalow regrowth left unchecked</li> <li>1960-1962: Brigalow regrowth pulled mechanically and burnt</li> <li>1962-1970: Regrowth commenced restabilising without treatment or control</li> <li>1970: Area/s designated as blocks to be left as shelter belts for cattle</li> <li>1970: Commenced managing areas surrounding the site regrowth (i.e. shelter belt) mechanically</li> <li>1971-2010: Areas surrounding the site regularly and intensively managed with ploughing, fertilising the pasture and cropping</li> <li>1971-2010: Site almost continually used as shelter belt for cattle - high use.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about Talaheni Horse Paddock, Murrambatman, NSW. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: The site was originally a <em>Themeda sp.</em> grassy woodland. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1830: Grazing of native vegetation - shepherds</li> <li>1900-1961: Fencing and continuous grazing with sheep</li> <li>1905: Overstorey thinned by ringbarking</li> <li>1906-1920: Continuous removal of suckers and regrowth</li> <li>1962: Remaining larger trees pushed over with a bull dozer</li> <li>1962-1974: Continuous grazing with cattle</li> <li>1968-1978: Four applications of superphosphate and exotic pasture species</li> <li>1975-1982: Continuous grazing with horses</li> <li>1983-1984: Continuous grazing with sheep</li> <li>1985: Continuous grazing ceased</li> <li>1986: Commenced rehabilitation</li> <li>1987-2008: Area lightly grazed using rotational grazing with sheep</li> <li>2008-2010: All stock removed - increasing high numbers of kangaroos.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about the Taroom Shire site in Queensland, Australia. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: the site was originally a brigalow, <em>Acacia harpophylla</em>, mixed community associated with several overstorey species, including <em>Eucalyptus coolabah</em>, <em>E. cambageana</em>, <em>Casuarina cristata</em>, a range of understorey species, grassy woodlands and open forests. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1860: Area used for sheep grazing by shepherds</li> <li>1870: Permanent fences established</li> <li>1875: Start of continuous or set stocking with sheep</li> <li>1880: Incursion of prickly pear started</li> <li>1935: Prickly pear had been destroyed</li> <li>1929-1932: Land clearance through ringbarking</li> <li>1929-1932: Gradual increase in cattle numbers decline in sheep</li> <li>1940-1955: Manual clearing of brigalow with axes issues with regrowth</li> <li>1960-62: Brigalow pulled mechanically and soil ploughed</li> <li>1962: Soil ploughed and sown to buffel grass pasture</li> <li>1962-65: Continuous grazing with cattle on buffel grass pasture</li> <li>1966-75: Soil ploughed and sown to wheat annually – cattle graze stubble</li> <li>1976: Soil ploughed and sown to buffel grass pasture</li> <li>1976-2000: Continuous grazing with cattle on buffel grass pasture</li> <li>2001-10: Soil ploughed and sown to wheat annually – cattle graze stubble.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details for the Wooroonooran Nature Refuge. </br><br> Pre-European benchmark-analogue vegetation: the original vegetation for the site was a complex mesophyll vine forest on basaltic red loams on wet uplands, altitude 720&nbsp;m with 4.421&nbsp;mm rainfall (av annual records for the period 1993-2011, source: Peter Stanton). </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1800: Indigenous management of mesophyll rainforest by Ngadyan people</li> <li>1924: Start of selective logging of high value timber species</li> <li>1930: Finish of selective logging of high value timber species - intent to convert rainforest to pasture</li> <li>1931: Start of land clearing of the previously logged forest - intent to convert rainforest to pasture</li> <li>1938: End of land clearing of the previously logged forest - forest trash burnt</li> <li>1939: Start of intensive soil and pasture management - soil not ploughed - aggressive pasture grasses sown into ash bed</li> <li>1940: Start of grazing - pasture for dairying</li> <li>1958: End of grazing, planted pasture for dairying. Pastures infertile. All livestock removed</li> <li>1959: Start of land abandonment and minimal use</li> <li>1983: Commenced large scale spraying and poisoning and physical removal of lantana</li> <li>1993: Regrowth rainforest (complex mesophyll vine forest) in gullies and on lower slopes - 50% of lot 2</li> <li>1994: Continued large scale spraying and poisoning of lantana and carpet grass</li> <li>2003: Site formally gazetted as Wooroonooran Nature Refuge by WTMA</li> <li>2011: Site continues to be manage for multiple values: timber reserve, biodiversity and habitat values.</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about South Brooman State Forest, NSW. </br><br> Pre-European reference-analogue vegetation: The site was originally eucalypt tall open forest, multi-aged open, dry sclerophyll forest. The main overstorey species were spotted gum (<em>Corymbia maculata</em>), <em>Eucalyptus muelleriana</em>, <em>E. paniculata</em>, <em>E. pilularis</em>. The main understorey species were <em>Acacia spp.</em>, <em>Acmena spp.</em> </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1830: Unmodified</li> <li>1880: Area picked over for high quality sawlogs</li> <li>1945: Area picked over for high quality sawlogs</li> <li>1949: Sawlog harvesting - 85% of area</li> <li>1959: Sawlog harvesting - 85% of area</li> <li>1968: Commercial Thinning - 25% of area</li> <li>1969: Area left to rehabilitate</li> <li>1994: Wildfire - 100% of the area</li> <li>1996: Pole harvesting - 5% of area</li> <li>1998: Sawlog harvesting - 20% of the area</li> <li>1999 and 2003: Hazard reduction</li> <li>1997: Site was burnt (prescribed fire) followed by drought</li> <li>2004-2011: Area left to rehabilitate</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about the Cumberland State Forest, Old Abandoned Arboretum site, NSW, Australia. </br><br> Pre-European reference-analogue vegetation: The Cumberland State Forest is part of the Blue Gum High Forest (Daniel Connolly pers comm). It is a tall wet sclerophyll forest found on Wianamatta group Ashfield Shale. Blue Gum High Forest is dominated by Sydney blue gum (<em>Eucalyptus saligna</em>), blackbutt (<em>E. pilularis</em>), and turpentine (<em>Syncarpia glomulifera</em>) with a number of other eucalypts occurring patchily. A sparse open cover of small trees includes a variety of sclerophyllous and mesophyllous species. The ground layer is variable in composition and cover; including ferny, grassy or herbaceous and/or vines and climbers. The characteristics of the ground cover are related to the topgraphic position. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1788- Area managed by indigenous Darug people</li> <li>1788-1824: Region explored, un-modified native forest blue gum/ironbark on shale</li> <li>1825: Parcel selected by Mr Shepherd</li> <li>1860: Tree cover likely to have been thinned - selective logging for fences and housing</li> <li>1826-1907: Grazing stock on native pastures</li> <li>1908: Land parcel cleared and sown to improved pasture, and evidence of chicken farm and fruit orchards</li> <li>1909-1937: Managed as improved pasture and grazing</li> <li>1937-38: Purchased by NSW Forestry Commission</li> <li>1941-42: Remaining native forest trees cleared to establish an arboretum</li> <li>1943-45: Arboretum planted as a future urban working forest</li> <li>1946-73: Arboretum managed for education and demonstration - infilling regrowth native forest observed</li> <li>1974-84: Arboretum increasing managed for recreation - infilling regrowth native forest observed</li> <li>1985-2012: Area managed for recreation (ex-arboretum and regrowth native forest).</li></ul></br>

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    <br>The aim of this project is to compile land use and management practices and their observed and measured impacts and effects on vegetation condition. The results provide land managers and researchers with a tool for reporting and monitoring spatial and temporal transformations of Australia’s native vegetated landscapes due to changes in land use and management practices. Following are the details about the Cumberland State Forest, compartments 8b, 9a and 9b, NSW, Australia. </br><br> Pre-European reference-analogue vegetation: the site was originally a wet sclerophyll forest found on Wianamatta group Ashfield Shale. </br><br> Brief chronology of changes in land use and management:<ul style="list-style-type: disc;"> <li>1788: Area managed by indigenous Darug people</li> <li>1788-1824: Region explored - un-modified native forest blue gum/ironbark on shale</li> <li>1825: Parcel selected by shepherd</li> <li>1826-1907: Grazing cattle on native pastures</li> <li>1860: Tree cover likely to have been thinned - selective logging</li> <li>1908: Commenced clearing patches of trees for improved pasture, chooks, orchards</li> <li>1909-1937: Managed as improved pasture for grazing</li> <li>1937-38: Purchased by NSW Forestry Commission</li> <li>1941-42: Area cleared of remaining native forest trees</li> <li>1946-73: Area managed for education and demonstration - regenerating native forest</li> <li>1974-84: Area increasing managed for recreation - regenerating native forest</li> <li>1985-2012: Area managed for recreation - regenerating native forest.</li></ul></br>